EFEKTIVITAS EKSTRAK METANOL DAUN SALAM (Eugenia polyantha) DAN DAUN JERUK PURUT (Cytrus histrix) SEBAGAI ANTIJAMUR PADA PERTUMBUHAN Fusarium oxysporum

RITA NOVERIZA, MIFTAKHUROHMAH MIFTAKHUROHMAH

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Minyak atsiri dan ekstrak dari beberapa tanaman telah banyakditeliti sebagai bahan pestisida nabati dan telah tersedia secara komersial.Beberapa penelitian menunjukkan daun salam memiliki aktivitas antijamurdan antibakteri. Jeruk purut mengandung citronella yang dikenal bersifatantijamur. Penelitian yang bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh ekstrakmetanol daun salam dan daun jeruk purut terhadap pertumbuhan Fusariumoxysporum telah dilakukan di laboratorium penyakit Balittro pada bulanJanuari sampai Februari 2008. Penelitian ini terdiri dari tiga kegiatan : (1)Uji ekstrak metanol daun salam dan jeruk purut terhadap pertumbuhanvegetatif F. oxysporum pada media padat. Parameter yang diamati adalahdiameter pertumbuhan F. oxysporum. (2) Uji ekstrak metanol daun salamdan jeruk purut terhadap pertumbuhan generatif F. oxysporum pada mediacair. Parameter yang diamati adalah jumlah konidia yang diproduksi danberat hifa. (3) Uji ekstrak metanol daun salam dan jeruk purut terhadappenghambatan perkecambahan konidia F. oxysporum. Perkecambahankonidia diamati pada 0, 2, dan 4 jam setelah perlakuan. Rancangan yangdigunakan dalam ketiga kegiatan tersebut adalah rancangan acak lengkap,dengan tiga ulangan. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak metanoldaun salam menghambat pertumbuhan vegetatif F. oxysporum. Persentasepenghambatan tertinggi adalah 57,16% pada konsentrasi 5%. Pada mediacair, ekstrak daun salam efektif menurunkan jumlah konidia dan berat hifa.Ekstrak daun salam juga mampu menghambat perkecambahan spora.Persentase penghambatan perkecambahan konidia pada perlakuan ekstrakdaun salam 3% sebesar 84,67% setelah 4 jam inkubasi. Ekstrak metanoldaun jeruk purut konsentrasi 5% efektif menghambat pertumbuhanvegetatif  F.  oxysporum  pada  media  padat  dengan  persentasepenghambatan 95,60 %. Pada media cair, ekstrak jeruk purut (semuakonsentrasi yang diuji) juga mampu menurunkan jumlah konidia dan berathifa. Selain itu, ekstrak metanol daun jeruk purut juga efektif menghambatperkecambahan konidia F. oxysporum hingga 77,00 % setelah 4 jaminkubasi.

Kata kunci : Eugenia polyantha, Cytrus histrix, F. oxysporum, metanol,penghambatan

ABSTRACT

The Effectiveness of Methanol Extract of Bay Leaf(Eugenia polyantha) and Kaffir Lime Leaf (Cytrushistrix) as Antifungal on Growth of F. oxysporum

Essential oils extracted from many plants have been investigated forbotanical pesticide source. There are several commercial pesticidescontaining essential oil. Kaffir lime containing citronella is known asantifungal material. Many research showed that bay leaf has antifungal andantibacterial activity. The objective of this research was to find out theeffect of metanol extracts of bay and kaffir lime leaves on F. oxysporumgrowth. The experiment was conducted from January to February 2008 atPhytopathology Laboratory of Indonesian Medicinal and Aromatic CropsResearch Institute (IMACRI). The experiment was consisted of 3activities : (1) Test of methanol extract of bay leaf and kaffir lime leaf onvegetative growth of F. oxysporum in solid media. Fungal colony diameterwas recorded each day. (2) Test of methanol extract of bay and kaffir limeleaves on generative growth of F. oxysporum in liquid media. Conidiaproduction and hifa weight were observed. (3) Test of methanol extract ofbay and kaffir lime leaves on inhabitation of conidia germination of F.oxysporum. The germination of conidia was observed at 0, 2, 4 hours aftertreatment. Experiment was designed using completely randomized designwith three replications. The result showed that methanol extract of bay leafinhibited the growth of F. oxysporum in solid media. The highest growthinhibition was 57.16% at 5% extract. In liquid media, methanol extract ofbay leaf decreased conidia production and hifa weight significantly.Methanol extract of bay leaf inhibited conidia germination. The percentageof inhibition of conidia germination was 84.67% at 3% extract. Methanolextract of Kaffir lime leaf inhibited the growth of F. oxysporumsignificantly. The percentage of inhibition was 95.6% at 5% extract. Inliquid media, methanol extract of kaffir lime leaf decreased conidiaproduction and hifa weight at all of concentration of extract. Methanolextract of kaffir lime leaf inhibited conidia germination. The percentage ofinhibition of conidia germination was 77.00% at 3% extract.

Key words : Eugenia polyantha, Cytrus histrix, inhibition, F. oxysporum,metanol


Full Text:

PDF


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/littri.v16n1.2010.6%20-%2011

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c)


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.



P-ISSN: 0853-8212
E-ISSN: 2528-6870

Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perkebunan
Jln. Tentara Pelajar No 1, Kampus Penelitian Cimanggu
Bogor 16111 Indonesia
Phone: +62251-8313083
Fax: +62251-8336194
Email: littri_puslitbangbun@yahoo.co.id



View My Stats