VARIASI GENETIK BEBERAPA SPESIES KAPAS (Gossypium sp.) BERDASARKAN KERAGAMAN POLA PITA ISOZIM

E. SULISTYOWATI, SULISTYOWATI SULISTYOWATI, S. RUSTINI, S. SUMARTINI, ABDURRAKHMAN ABDURRAKHMAN

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Deskripsi aksesi-aksesi kapas berdasarkan karakter morfologinyatelah disusun berdasarkan descriptor list yang disusun oleh IBPGR, akantetapi marka genetik dari aksesi-aksesi tersebut belum diketahui. Penelitianini bertujuan untuk mempelajari keragaman pola-pita isozim Peroksidase(PER), Esterase (EST), dan Aspartate amino transferase (AAT) pada 19aksesi kapas dan kemiripan ke-19 aksesi kapas berdasarkan ketiga isozimtersebut. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan mulai bulan Februari 2008 di RumahKaca Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Sebelas Maret Surakarta dan analisisisozim dilakukan di Laboratorium Biologi Tumbuhan, PAU Ilmu HayatIPB. Metode analisis yang digunakan adalah elektroforesis gel pati tipehorisontal dengan tiga sistem enzim, yaitu enzim peroksidase (PER),esterase (EST), dan aspartate amino transferase (AAT). Penelitianmenghasilkan data berupa pola pita isozim yang selanjutnya dibuat dalamdata biner. Data biner yang dihasilkan dibuat dalam persamaan matrik dandilanjutkan analisis gerombol dengan metode ‘UPGMA’ (Unweighted PairGroup Method Arithmetic Average) menggunakan fungsi SHAN padaProgram NTSYSpc versi 2.02. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwaIsozim esterase dapat dijadikan marka genetik bagi Kanesia 1 (terbentuksatu pita spesifik) dan Kanesia 6 (satu pita spesifik); isozim peroksidasedapat dijadikan marka genetik bagi Kanesia 3 (dua pita pada kutub positif),aksesi-aksesi G. barbadense (dalam hal ini CTX-3 dan Giza-90 dua pitapada kutub positif) dan G. arboreum (empat pita pada kutub positif dansatu pita pada kutub negatif). Sedangkan isozim aspartat amino tranferasedapat dijadikan marka genetik bagi spesies G. herbaceum (dua pitaspesifik). Selain itu, terdapat kemiripan genetik antar aksesi kapasberdasarkan ketiga isozim (EST, PER, dan AAT). Pengelompokanberdasarkan ketiga isozim dari ke-19 aksesi kapas diketahui bahwa padajarak kemiripan 0,59 atau kemiripan 59% semua aksesi kapas menyatu,yang terbagi menjadi 2 kelompok. Kelompok pertama hanya terdiri aksesiKanesia 1 saja. Sedangkan Kelompok kedua terdiri atas aksesi-aksesiKanesia 2, Kanesia 3, Kanesia 6, Kanesia 4, Kanesia 10, Kanesia 7,Kanesia 11, Kanesia 12, M-5, Kanesia 8, Kanesia 9, Kanesia 15, AKA-5,Kanesia 13, Kanesia 14, CTX-3, Giza-90 dan Kanesia 5.

Kata kunci: Gossypium sp., keragaman genetik, pola pita isozim

ABSTRACT

Genetic Diversity of Cotton Species (Gossypium sp.)Based on Variation of Isozyme Banding Pattern

Morphological characters of cotton accessions have been describedbased on the descriptor list produced by IBPGR, but the genetic markersfor those accessions have not yet been known. This research aimed atstudying the diversity and similarity among 19 cotton accessions based onisozyme banding patterns of peroxidase (PER), esterase (EST), andaspartate amino transferase (AAT). Research was carried out in February2008 at the green house of Faculty of Agriculture, Sebelas MaretUniversity, Surakarta and the isozyme was analyzed in Plant BiologicalLaboratory, Biological Science PAU IPB. Samples were electrophoresedon horizontal type of potato extract gel and stained with three enzymesystems, i.e. peroxidase (PER), esterase (EST), and aspartate aminotransferase ( AAT). The isozyme bandings were scored and translated intobinary data, which was then used to deduce the similarity amongaccessions and to draw dendrogram by using 'UPGMA' (Unweighted PairGroup Method Arithmetic Average) method from the NTSYSPC softwareversion 2.02. Experimental results showed that isozyme esterase can beused as genetic marker for Kanesia 1 (one specific band) and Kanesia 6(one specific band). Isozyme peroxidase can be used as genetic marker forKanesia 3 (two bands at positive end), accessions G. barbadense i.e. CTX-3 and Giza-90 (two bands at positive end) and G. arboreum (four bands atpositive end and one band at negative). Isozyme aspartate aminotransferase can be used as genetic marker for spesies G. herbaceum (twospecific bands). Moreover, the similarity analysis among 19 cottonaccessions based on the three isozymes showed that at the similarity levelof 59%, all accessions are divided in two groups. The first group consistedof Kanesia 1 only. Whereas the second group consisted of accessionsKanesia 2, Kanesia 3, Kanesia 6, Kanesia 4, Kanesia 10, Kanesia 7,Kanesia 11, Kanesia 12, M-5, Kanesia 8, Kanesia 9, Kanesia 15, AKA-5,Kanesia 13, Kanesia 14, CTX-3, Giza-90, and Kanesia 5.

Key words: Gossypium sp., genetic diversity, isozyme banding pattern


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/littri.v15n4.2009.%25p

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