RESPON TEMULAWAK (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb) TERHADAP PEMBERIAN PUPUK BIO PADA KONDISI AGROEKOLOGI YANG BERBEDA

MUCHAMAD YUSRON

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Efisiensi pemupukan dan peningkatan produktivitas temu-temuandapat dilakukan dengan penggunaan pupuk bio. Penelitian untukmengetahui respon temulawak terhadap pupuk bio telah dilaksanakan didua kondisi agroekologi yang berbeda di Kabupaten Boyolali, yakni diDesa Wonoharjo, Kecamatan Kemusu (jenis tanah Mediteran coklat tua,200 m dpl, tipe iklim C, tegakan jati umur 3 tahun, intensitas cahayasekitar 60%), dan Desa Kaligentong, Kecamatan Ampel (Andosol, 600 mdpl, tipe iklim B, hutan sengon rakyat, intensitas cahaya sekitar 40%).Penelitian dilaksanakan mulai Oktober 2002 sampai September 2003.Jarak tanam temulawak 50 cm x 75 cm, luas petak 10 m x 10 m.Penelitian disusun menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok dengan 3perlakuan dan 9 ulangan. Perlakuan adalah dosis pupuk bio, yaitu (i) 0, (ii)45, dan (iii) 90 kg/ha. Sedangkan pupuk dasar yang diberikan adalah 10ton pupuk kandang + 200 kg urea + 200 kg SP-36 + 200 kg KCl per ha.Pupuk  bio  yang  digunakan  mengandung  mikroorganisme  aktifAzospirillum lipoferum Beijerincki, Azotobacter vinelandii Beijerincki,Aeromonas punctata Zimmermann, dan Aspergillus niger van Tiegham.Pupuk urea diberikan tiga kali, masing-masing 1/3 bagian pada 1, 2, dan 3bulan setelah tanam (BST). Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap parametertinggi tanaman, jumlah anakan, produksi rimpang dan mutu rimpang. Hasilpenelitian menunjukkan bahwa jumlah anakan tidak dipengaruhi olehkondisi agroekologi. Pupuk bio secara nyata mampu meningkatkanproduktivitas temulawak, namun peningkatan tersebut dipengaruhi olehkondisi agroekologi. Penambahan pupuk bio sebesar 45 dan 90 kg/hameningkatkan produksi rimpang segar temulawak sebesar 24 dan 47%.Mutu simplisia yang dihasilkan memenuhi standar Materia MedicaIndonesia.

Kata kunci : Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb, pupuk bio, kondisi agroekologi

ABSTRACT

Response of Java Turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb) toBiofertilizers Application Under Different Agroecological Condition

Fertilization efficiency and yield of zingiberaceae may be improvedthrough the application of biofertilizers. A field experiment to evaluate theresponse of Java turmeric to the application of biofertilizers under differentagroecological conditions was carried out at Wonoharjo, KemusuSubdistrict (dark brown Mediterranean soil, 200 m asl., climate type C,3 years teak plantation, light intensity 60%), and Kaligentong, AmpelSubdistrict (Andosol, 600 m asl., climate type B, 5 years albizia plantation,light intensity 40%). Both experimental sites were located at BoyolaliDistrict. The experiment was conducted from October 2002 to September2003. Planting distance was 50 cm x 75 cm, and plot size was 10 m x 10m. The experiment was arranged using randomized block design withthree treatments and 9 replicates. The treatments were biofertilizer dosage,i.e. (i) 0, (ii) 45 and (iii) 90 kg/ha. Inorganic fertilizers was applied as basalfertilization, i.e. 10 ton manure + 200 kg urea + 200 kg SP-36 + 200 kgKCl per hectare. Biofertilizer contained some active microorganisms, i.e.Azospirillum lipoferum Beijerincki, Azotobacter vinelandii Beijerincki,Aeromonas punctata Zimmermann and Aspergillus niger van Tiegham.Urea was applied 1/3 dosage each at 1, 2, 3 months after planting (MAP).Manure was applied a week before planting, while SP-36 and KCl wereapplied at planting time. Parameters observed were plant height, numbersof clump, fresh rhizome yield and dried rhizome quality. The resultsshowed that plant growth was not significantly affected by agroecologicalconditions. Biofertilizers significantly affected crop yield, however, theincrease of crop yield was affected by agroecological conditions.Application 45 and 90 kg/ha of biofertilizers of increased fresh rhizomeyield of about 24 and 47%. Dried rhizome quality of all treatments meetMateria Medica Indonesia standard.

Keywords : Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb, biofertilizers, agroecologicalconditions


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/littri.v15n4.2009.%25p

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