KERAGAMAN GENETIK, HERITABILITAS DAN KORELASI ANTAR KARAKTER KUANTITATIF NILAM (Pogostemon sp.) HASIL FUSI PROTOPLAS

BUDI MARTONO

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Fusi protoplas merupakan salah satu alternatif yang dapat dilakukanuntuk meningkatkan keragaman genetik pada tanaman nilam. Pendugaanparameter genetik nilam hasil fusi protoplas nilam Jawa (Girilaya) dengannilam Aceh (Sidikalang dan TT 75) adalah penting dalam programpemuliaan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui keragaman genetik,heritabilitas, korelasi fenotipik dan genotipik beberapa karakter kuantitatifhibrida somatik nilam hasil fusi protoplas. Penelitian dilakukan di KP.Cimanggu Balittro dari bulan Juli-Desember 2004. Rancangan percobaanyang digunakan adalah rancangan acak kelompok dengan 33 genotipeyang terdiri dari 3 tetua dan 30 klon hibrida somatik sebagai perlakuan dandiulang dua kali. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa jumlah cabangprimer, jumlah daun per cabang primer dan tebal daun mempunyaikeragaman genetik yang sempit, sedangkan tinggi tanaman, panjangcabang primer, jumlah dan panjang cabang sekunder, panjang dan lebardaun, panjang tangkai daun, produksi terna basah dan kering keragamangenetiknya luas. Heritabilitas tinggi tanaman, panjang cabang primer,panjang cabang sekunder, panjang dan lebar daun, panjang tangkai daun,produksi terna basah dan kering bernilai tinggi. Sedangkan karakter jumlahcabang primer, jumlah cabang sekunder, jumlah daun per cabang primerdan tebal daun bernilai heritabilitas rendah sampai sedang. Sebagian besarkarakter yang diamati memiliki keragaman genetik luas dan heritabilitastinggi, kecuali jumlah cabang primer, jumlah daun per cabang primer dantebal daun. Korelasi fenotipik dan genotipik positif dan nyata terhadapproduksi terna kering ditunjukkan oleh karakter tinggi tanaman, jumlahcabang primer, panjang cabang sekunder, panjang dan lebar daun, panjangtangkai daun serta produksi terna basah.

Kata kunci: Pogostemon sp., fusi protoplas, parameter genetik

ABSTRACTGenetic variability, heritability, and correlation among quantitativecharacters of patchouli (Pogostemon sp.) derived from protoplastfussionProtoplast fussion is one of the alternatives for increasing geneticvariability of patchouli. Study to estimate genetic parameters of somatichybrids of Pogostemon heyneaneus (cv. Girilaya) x P. cablin (cv.Sidikalang and TT 75) is important in breeding program. Study on geneticvariability, heritability, phenotypic and genetic correlation for somequantitative characters of somatic hybrids of patchouli derived fromprotoplast fussion was conducted in Cimanggu Experimental Garden fromJuly to December 2004. The experiment was arranged in a randomizedcomplete block design with two replications using 33 genotypes consistingof three parents and 30 somatic hybrids as treatments. Results of thisexperiment showed that number of primary branches, number of leaves onprimary branches, and thickness of leaves indicated narrow geneticvariability, while plant height, length of primary branches, number andlength of secondary branches, length and width of leaves, leaf petiolelength, fresh and dry leaves production indicated wide genetic variability.Plant height, length of primary branches, number and length of secondarybranches, length and width of leaves, leaf petioles length, fresh and dryleaves production showed high heritability values. Meanwhile, thecharacters of number of primary and secondary branches, number ofleaves on primary branches and thick of leaves showed moderate to lowheritability values. Most characters observed showed wide geneticvariability and high heritability, except for number of primary branches,number of leaves on primary branches, and thick of leaf. Phenotypic andgenotypic correlations between plant height, number of primary branches,length of secondary branches, length and width of leaves, leaf petiolelength and fresh leaves production with dry leaves production werepositive and significant.

Key words: Pogostemon sp., protoplast fussion, genetic parameters


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/littri.v15n1.2009.%25p

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