KERAGAMAN SELASIH (Ocimum Spp.) BERDASARKAN KARAKTER MORFOLOGI, PRODUKSI DAN MUTU HERBA

ENDANG HADIPOENTYANTI, SRI WAHYUNI

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Beberapa spesies selasih menunjukkan keragaman dalam sifatmorfologi, produksi dan minyak atsirinya. Penelitian dilakukan di KP.Cimanggu – Bogor, bertujuan untuk mengetahui keragaman sifatmorfologi, produksi dan kandungan utama minyak atsiri selasih. Tujuhnomor koleksi Ocimum spp. antara lain (O. gratissimum, O. basilicum, O.sanctum dan O. minimum ) diamati dengan menanam 50 tanaman/nomor,jarak tanam 40 x 30 cm. Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap sifat morfologi,produksi, sifat fisikokimia dan kandungan kimia utama minyak atsiri.Berdasarkan sifat tersebut dilakukan analisis kluster untuk melihatkeragaman tanaman. Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan karakter morfologiOcimum spp. beragam, dilihat dari habitus, bentuk dan warna batang,bentuk dan warna daun, bentuk rangkaian dan warna bunga, serta bentukdan warna biji. Produksi terna basah selasih bervariasi antara 34-83 kg/plot(50 tanaman, kumulatif selama 3 kali panen). Antar 2 nomor koleksiruku-ruku hutan secara morfologi susah dibedakan, tetapi dapat dibedakandari aroma daun. Antar 2 nomor aksesi basil dapat dibedakan dari warnadaun, batang dan bunganya. Mutu fisik minyak atsiri koleksi selasih belummemenuhi standard yang dipersyaratkan EOA. Komposisi utama minyakOcimum spp. bervariasi. Aksesi dengan kandungan eugenol tinggi adalahbasil daun keunguan (kadar eugenol 46%) dan ruku-ruku hutan A (kadareugenol 37,04%). Koleksi dengan kandungan methyl Eugenol tinggiadalah basil C (daun hijau) (63,13%), ruku-ruku I (56%) dan selasihngombol B (68%). Nomor koleksi dengan kandungan sineol tinggi(40,03%) adalah ruku-ruku hutan (K), sedangkan kemangi F mempunyaikomposisi kimia utama sitral (43,45%) dan geraniol (21,23%). Hasilanalisa kluster tanaman mengelompok pada 2 kelompok utama. Klusterpertama adalah basil C dan selasih ngombol B. Kluster kedua terdiri dariaksesi A, K, I, D, dan F. Antar ruku-ruku hutan (A, K) mengelompok padasub-kluster yang sama yang mengindikasikan jarak genetiknya dekat.Kemangi F berada pada sub kluster sendiri.Kata kunci : Ocimum spp., keragaman, morfologi, minyak atsiri, produksi,mutu

ABSTRACT

Variability of Ocimum spp. based on morphologicalcharacters, yields and herbs qualitySeveral basil species show variation in their morphology,production and essential oils. The research was carried out at CimangguExperimental Garden, Bogor to find out the morphologycal characters,yield variability and major chemical constituent of basil. Sevencollection numbers such as O. gratissimum, O basilikum, O. sanctum danO. minimum planted each consisted of 50 plants grown in 40 x 30 cm rows.Research parameters assesed were morphological characters, herb yield,oil phyisico-chemical characters and their major chemical constituent ofoil. Results showed that al the seven numbers Ocimum spp. variedmorphologically in their stem, leaves and flower’s color. Herb yield ofOcimum spp. ranged from 34 -83 kg fresh herb/plot of 50 plants(cumulative of 3 times harvest). Within species of basil (O. basilucum),variation can be seen clearly from their stem, leaves, flower colour andleaves  odours.  However,  within  tree  basil  (O.  gratissimum),morphologically, it is difficult to be differenciated, except the leavesodours. Oil physico-chemical characters are does not meet EOA standardyet. There are variations in major oil constituent of Ocimum spp. Theaccessions having high eugenol content were purple leaf basil (46%) andtree basil A (37.04%). The collections with high methyl eugenol weregreen leaf basil (63.13%), holly basil I (36%), and bush basil B (68%).High eugenol content (40.03%) was found in tree basil K. Meanwhile, themain chemical composition of lemon basil F were citral (43.45%) andgeraniol (21.23%). Cluster analisis based on morphological, agronomicaland major chemical constituent traits are clustered into two main cluster.First cluster consist of basil C and bush basil B. The second cluster consistof A, K, I, D, and F accessions where two accession of tree basil (A,K)placed in the same sub clustered, indicated that they are closed to eachother. Moreover, lemon basil F is placed in its own sub cluster.Key words : Ocimum sp, variability, atsiri oil, production, quality


Full Text:

PDF


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jlittri.v14n4.2008.141-148

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c)


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.




P-ISSN: 0853-8212
E-ISSN: 2528-6870

Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Perkebunan

(Indonesian Center for Estate Crops Research and Development)

Jln. Tentara Pelajar No 1, Kampus Penelitian Cimanggu

Bogor 16111 Indonesia

Phone: +62251-8313083

Fax: +62251-8336194

Email: littri_puslitbangbun@yahoo.co.id



View My Stats