PERAKITAN VARIETAS JERUK TANPA BIJI MELALUI PEMULIAAN KONVENSONAL DAN NONKONVENSIONAL

Mia Kosmiatin, Ali Husni

Abstract


Existence of seeds in the citrus fruit, becomes a major problem that it cannot be received by consumer, even though the fruits has a good taste. Citrus breeders have long been conducting research to improvement of seedless cultivars with the diverse approach. Breeding’s strategies to gain seedless character covering conventional and non-conventional techniques. Conventional technique develop through controlled sexual or interploidi crossing. Seedless character transfer by sexual crossing technique have to do trough manipulate of crossing technique to gain seedless progeny. Crossing technique manipulate through environment manipulation, application of plant growth regulators, parent’s selections and embryo rescue. Non-conventional technique to seedless improvement cover to embryo rescue, endosperm culture, in vitro mutagenesis, inter species and inter ploidi somatic hybridization, cybrid production, and develop of GMO. Current breeding to improve seedless citrus done by ploidy manipulation approach with the target is triploid plant which produce seedless. Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development- IAARD have succeeded registering varieties of seedless citrus, Pamindo Agrihorti (2016) and SoE86 Agrihorti (2017), which resulted from mutation breeding. Furthermore there are also various line of triploid citrus and citrus obtained through protoplast fusion and being adaptation tested at lowland and highland.

Keywords: Citrus spp., seedless, plant improvement, conventional, biotechnology

 

Abstrak

Jeruk dengan biji yang banyak kurang disukai konsumen meskipun rasanya manis. Para pemulia sudah sejak lama melakukan pemuliaan tanaman jeruk untuk mendapatkan kultivar dengan buah tanpa biji (seedless). Strategi pemuliaan yang dilakukan untuk mendapatkan buah jeruk seedless meliputi penerapan teknik konvensional dan nonkonvensional. Teknik konvensional dikembangkan melalui persilangan seksual terkontrol atau persilangan interploidi. Pemindahan karakter seedless dengan teknik persilangan seksual harus dilakukan dengan memanipulasi teknik persilangan untuk mendapatkan progeni yang berkarakter seedless. Manipulasi teknik persilangan dilakukan dengan modifikasi lingkungan, aplikasi ZPT, pemilihan tetua yang tepat dan penyelamatan embrio. Teknik nonkonvensional yang telah dilakukan dalam pemuliaan jeruk seedless meliputi penyelamatan embrio, kultur endosperma, mutagenesis in vitro, hibridisasi somatik interspesifik dan interploidi, produksi sibrid, serta perakitan tanaman transgenik. Saat ini pemuliaan untuk mendapatkan tanaman jeruk dengan karakter seedless banyak dilakukan melalui pendekatan manipulasi ploidi dengan target diperolehnya tanaman triploid yang akan menghasilkan buah seedless. Balitbangtan sudah berhasil mendaftarkan varietas jeruk tanpa biji, Pamindo Agrihorti (2016) dan SoE86 Agrihorti (2017), yang dihasilkan melalui pemuliaan mutasi. Selain itu juga telah diperoleh beberapa galur jeruk triploid dan jeruk hasil fusiprotoplas yang sedang diujiadaptasikan di dataran rendah dan tinggi.

Kata kunci: Citrus spp, tanpa biji, perakitan tanaman, konvensional, bioteknologi


Keywords


Citrus spp.;seedless;plant improvement;conventional;biotechnology

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ahloowalia, B.S. and G.S. Khush, G.S. 2001.Renaissance in genetics and its impact on plant breeding. Euphytica. 118(2): 99–102.

Aleza, P., J. Juarez, J. Cuenca, P. Ollitrault, and L. Navarro. 2012. Extensive citrus triploid hybrid production by 2x× 4x sexual hybridizations and parent-effect on the length of the juvenile phase. Plant cell reports. 31(9): 1723–1735.

Aleza, P., J. Juarez, J. Cuenca, P. Ollitrault, and L. Navarro. 2010. Recovery of citrus triploid hybrids by embryo rescue and flow cytometry from 2x 3 2x sexual hybridisation and its application to extensive breeding programs. [Online] 1023–1034. Available from: doi:10.1007/s00299-010-0888-7.

Aleza, P., J. Juarez, P. Ollitrault, and L. Navaro. 2009. Production of tetraploid plants of non apomictic citrus genotypes. Palnt cell Report. [Online] 28, 1837–1846. Available from: doi:10.1007/s00299-009-0783-2.

Aleza, P., A Garcia-Lor, J Juarez, L Navarroand & J. Juarez.2016. Recovery of citrus cybrid plants with diverse mitochondrial and chloroplastic genome combinations by protoplast fusion followed by in vitro shoot , root , or embryo micrografting. [Online] 205–217. Available from: doi:10.1007/s11240-016- 0991-8.

Berger, F., Y. Hamamura, M Igouf, and T Higashiyama.2008. Double fertilization–caught in the act. Trends in plant science. 13 (8), Elsevier, 437–443.

Bermejo, A., B. Martýnez-Alcantara, M. Martýnez-Cuenca, R. Yuste, C. Mesejo, C. Reig, M. Agustý, E. Primo-Millo, and D. J. Iglesias.2016. Biosynthesis and Contents of Gibberellins in Seeded and Seedless Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) Cultivars. Journal of plant growth regulation. 35 (4), Springer, 1036–1048.

Dutt, M., M. Vasconcellos, K.J. Song, F.G. Gmitter Jr., and J.W. Grosser. 2010. In vitro production of autotetraploid Ponkan mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) using cell suspension cultures. [Online] 235–242. Available from: doi:10.1007/s10681-009- 0098-y.

Esen, A, and R.K. Soost. 1972. Tetraploid progenies from 2x× 4x crosses of citrus and their origin. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 97, 410–414.

Esen, A. and R.K. Soost. 1973. Precocious development and germination of spontaneous triploid seeds in Citrus. Journal of Heredity. 64 (3), Oxford University Press, 147–154.

Esen, A., R.K. Soost, and G. Geraci. 1979. Genetic evidence for the origin of diploid megagametophytes in Citrus. Oxford University Press, Journal of Heredity 70(1): 5–8.

Geraci, G., A. Strrantino, G. R. Recupero and F. Ruso.1982. Spontaneous triploidy in progenies of monoembryonic hybrids of Clementine ‘Commune x King of Siam’. Genet. Agri. 36, 113–118.

Goetz, M., A. Vivian-Smith, S.D. Johnson, and A.M. Koltunow. 2006. Auxin response factor 8 is a negative regulator of fruit initiation in Arabidopsis. The Plant Cell. Am Soc Plant Biol, 18(8): 1873–1886.

Grosser, J.W. 2004. Applications of somatic hybridization and cybridization in crop improvement, with citrus as a model. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. 40, Society for In Vitro Biology, 17A.

Grosser, J.W. F.G. Gmitter, Jr., N. Tusa, G.R. Recupero, and P. Cucinotta. 1996. Further evidence of a cybridization requirement for plant regeneration from citrus leaf protoplasts following somatic fusion. Plant Cell Reports. 15(9): 672–676.

Grosser, J.W. J.A. Hyum, M. Calovic, H. L. Dong, C. Chen, M. Vasconcellos, F.G. Gmitter. 2010. Production of new allotetraploid and autotetraploid citrus breeding parents: focus on zipperskin mandarins. American Society for Horticultural Science, HortScience. 45(8): 1160–1163.

Grosser, J.W. and F.G. Gmitter. 2011. Protoplast fusion for production of tetraploids and triploids/ : applications for scion and rootstock breeding in citrus. [Online] 343–357. Available from: doi:10.1007/s11240-010-9823-4.

Gulsen, O.A. Uzun, H. Pala, E. Canihos and G. Kafa. 2007. Development of seedless and Mal Secco tolerant mutant lemons through budwood irradiation. [Online] 112, 184–190. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.scienta.2006.12.040.

Van Harten, A.M. and C. Broertjes. 1989. Induced mutations in vegetatively propagated crops. Plant Breeding Reviews. 6, Wiley Online Library, 55–91.

Hazra, P., A.K. Dutta, and P. Chatterjee. 2010. Altered gibberellin and auxin levels in the ovaries in the manifestation of genetic parthenocarpy in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Current Science. JSTOR, 1439–1443.

Hoshino, Y., T. Miyashita, and T.D. Thomas. 2011. In vitro culture of endosperm and its application in plant breeding: Approaches to polyploidy breeding. Scientia horticulturae, Elsevier. 130(1): 1–8.

Husni, A. 2010. Fusi Protoplas Interspesies Antara Jeruk Siam Simadu (Citrus nobilis Lour.) dengan Mandarin Satsuma (C. unshiu Marc.). IPB (Bogor Agricultural University).

Junko, K., K. Tetsuji, K. Yuji, H. Akira, N. Soichi and K. Shozo. 1997. Breeding of Triploid Citrus Cultivars I. Production of Triploids from Satsuma Mandarin. Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science. 66 (1), The Japanese Society for Horticultural Science, 9–14.

Koltunow, A.M., A. Vivian-Smith and S. R. Sykes. 1998. Evaluation of genes to reduce seed size in Arabidopsis and tobacco and their application to Citrus. 235–251.

Kosmiatin, M. 2013.Triploid plant formation of tangerine (Citrus Nobilis Lour) var simadu through endosperm culture. IPB (Bogor Agricultural University). Kosmiatin, M. 2016. Pengembangan jeruk siam medan triolid untuk produksi buaha seedless. Laporan Hasil Penelitian Program KKP3N TA 2016.

Kosmiatin, M, C Martasari, D sukmadjaja, Y Supriati dan A. Husni. 2017. Aplikasi teknologi kultur in vitro untuk peningkatan kualitas dan perbanyakan komoditas penting pertanian. Laporan Hasil Penelitian DIPA BB BIOGEN TA 2017. Bogor.

Li, D.D., W. Shi, and X.X. Deng.2003. Factors influencing Agrobacterium-mediated embryogenic callus transformation of Valencia sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) containing the pTA29- barnase gene. Tree physiology. 23 (17), Heron Publishing, 1209– 1215.

Louzada, E.S., H.S. del Rio, D. Xia, and J. M. Moran-Mirabal. 2002. Preparation and fusion of Citrus sp. microprotoplasts. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science. 127 (4), American Society for Horticultural Science, 484–488.

Martasari, C. 2014. Kajian Genetik dan Percepatan Pembungaan Tanaman Hasil Fusi Protoplasma Jeruk Siam Madu (Citrus nobilis Lour) dan Mandarin Satsuna (C. Unshiu Marc.). Disertasi. Program Doktor Ilmu Pertanian Minat Pemuliaan dan Bioteknologi. Program Pascasarjana Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya. Malang.

Mesejo, C., N. Munoz-Fambuena, C. Reig, A. Martinez-Fuentes, and M. Agusti. 2014. Plant Science Cell division interference in newly fertilized ovules induces stenospermocarpy in crosspollinated citrus fruit. [Online] 225, 86–94. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.plantsci.2014.05.019.

Mesejo, C.,R. Yuste, A. Martinez-Fuentes, C. Reig, D. J. Iglesias, E. PrimoMillo, and M. Agustý. 2013. Self pollination and parthenocarpic ability in developing ovaries of self incompatible Clementine mandarins (Citrus clementina). Physiologia plantarum. 148 (1), Wiley Online Library, 87–96.

Navarro, L.,O. Olivares-Fuster, J. Jua´rez, P. Aleza, J. A. Pina, J. F. Ballester-Olmos, M. Cervera, C. Fagoaga, N. Duran-Vila, and L. Pena. 2004. Applications of biotechnology to citrus improvement in Spain. Acta horticulturae.

Ohgawara, T. S. Kobayashi, E. Ohgawala, H. Uchimiya and S. Ishii. 1985. Somatic hybrid plants obtained by protoplast fusion between Citrus sinensis and Poncirus trifoliata. Theoretical and applied genetics. 71 (1), Springer, 1–4.

Ollitrault, P.,F. Vanel, Y. Froelicher, D. Dambier. 1998.Creation of triploid Citrus hybrids by electrofusion of haploid and diploid protoplasts.In: First International Citrus Biotechnology Symposium 535. pp.191–198.

Ollitrault, P., D. Dambier, F. Luro, and Y. Froelicher. 2007. Ploidy manipulation for breeding seedless triploid citrus. Plant Breeding Reviews. 30, Wiley Online Library, 323–352.

Recupero, G.R., G. Russo, and S. Recupero. 2005. New Promising Citrus Triploid Hybrids Selected from Crosses between Monoembryonic Diploid Female and Tetraploid Male Parents. 40 (3), 516–520.

Roose M.L., and T.E. Williams. 2007. 16 Mutation Breeding. Citrus Genetics, Breeding and Biotechnology. CABI, 345.

Sajid, A., A. S. Khan, S. A. Raza, 2013.Innovative breeding methods to develop seedless citrus cultivars.doi: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.12692/ijb/3.8.191-201.2013 .

Sattler, M.C., C.R. Carvalho, andW.R. Clarindo. 2016. The polyploidy and its key role in plant breeding. Planta. 243 (2), Springer, 281–296.

Sigareva, M.A., and E.D. Earle. 1997. Direct transfer of a coldtolerant Ogura male-sterile cytoplasm into cabbage (Brassica oleracea ssp. capitata) via protoplast fusion. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 94 (2), Springer, 213–220.

Song, J.K. and X.X. Deng,2006. Induction and genetic identification of embryogenic calli from hybrids of Shatian pummelo. Agricultural Sciences in China. Elsevier 5(8): 591–595.

Soost, R.K. 1985. Melogold, a triploid pummelo-grapefruit hybrid. HortScience. 20, 1134–1135. Spiegel-Roy, P., and E.E. Goldschmidt. 1996.The biology of citrus. Cambridge University Press.

Spiegel-Roy, P., and Vardi, A. 1992. Shani, Orah’and ‘Winola’: Three new selections from our breeding program, in: Proceedings of 7th International Citrus Congress of the International Society, Citriculture, Acireale, Italy. pp.72–73.

Usman, M., T. Safed, M. M. Khan and B. Fatima. 2006. Occurrence of spontaneous polyploids in Citrus. Horticulture Science. 33(3): 124–129.

Vardi, A., I. Levin, and N. Carmi. 2008. Induction of Seedlessness in Citrus: From Classical Techniques to Emerging Biotechnological Approaches. 133(1): 117–126.

Viloria, Z., J. W. Grosser,and B. Bracho. 2005. Immature embryo rescue, culture and seedling development of acid citrus fruit derived from interploid hybridization. [Online] 159–167. Available from: doi:10.1007/s11240-005-0153-x.

Wakana, A., N. Hanada, S. M. Park, I. Fukudome and K. Kajiwara. 2005. Production of tetraploid forms of acid citrus cultivars by top grafting of shoots with sprouting axially buds treated with colchicine. Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University. 50(1): 93–102.

Wu, J.H. and P. Mooney. 2002. Autotetraploid tangor plant regeneration from in vitro Citrus somatic embryogenic callus treated with colchicine. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture. Springer, 70(1): 99–104.

Wu, J., Ferguson, A.R., andP.A. Mooney. 2005. Allotetraploid hybrids produced by protoplast fusion for seedless triploid Citrus breeding. [Online] 229–235. Available from: doi:10.1007/ s10681-005-7009-7.

Yamamoto, M., R. Matsumoto, N. Okudai, and Y. Yamada. 1997. Aborted anthers of Citrus result from gene-cytoplasmic male sterility. Scientia Horticulturae. Elsevier, 70(1): 9–14.

Yamamoto, M. andS. Kobayashi. 1995. A cybrid plant produced by electrofusion between Citrus unshiu (Satsuma mandarin) and C. sinensis (sweet orange). Plant tissue culture letters. Japanese Society for Plant Cell and Molecular Biology. 12(2): 131–137.

Yamasaki, A.,A. Kitajima, N. Ohara, M. Tanaka, and K. Hasegawa. 2009. Characteristics of arrested seeds in Mukaku Kishu-type seedless citrus. Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science. 78(1): 61–67.

Yin, Z., R. A. Malinowski, H. Ziolkowska, W Sommer, Plcader, and S. Malepszy. 2006. The DefH9-iaaM-containing construct efficiently induces parthenocarpy in cucumber. Cellular & molecular biology letters. 11(2): 279.

Zhang, J., M. Zhang, and X. Deng. 2007. Obtaining autotetraploids in vitro at a high frequency in Citrus sinensis. [Online] 211– 216. Available from: doi:10.1007/s11240-007-9240-5.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jp3.v37n2.2018.p91-100

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2018 Jurnal Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 

Balai Pengelola Alih Teknologi Pertanian
Jalan Salak No.22, Bogor 16151
Telp. : (0251) 8382563
Faks. : (0251) 8382567
E-mail : jurnallitbang@gmail.com
Website : http://bpatp.litbang.pertanian.go.id

          


Creative Commons License
JP3 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

View My Stats