Heny Herawati



Hidrokoloid merupakan komponen polimer yang berasal dari sayuran, hewan, atau mikroba yang umumnya memiliki kemampuan menyerap dan mengikat air. Terdapat berbagai jenis hidrokoloid potensial yang dapat diekstrak dan dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan tambahan pangan dan nonpangan untuk meningkatkan kualitas produk. Ekstraksi hidrokoloid dapat dilakukan secara fisik, kimia, dan biokimiawi. Beberapa jenis hidrokoloid dapat diekstrak dari beberapa bagian komponen tanaman seperti akar, biji, buah, umbi dan cangkang. Hidrokoloid memiliki karakteristik spesifik, bergantung pada struktur rantai dan gugus fungsional yang terdapat di dalamnya. Struktur rantai yang mengandung banyak gugus hidroksil menyebabkan hidrokoloid lebih mudah menyerap air. Hidrokoloid dapat digunakan sebagai komponen dalam menghasilkan produk pangan maupun nonpangan yang berkualitas. Dalam pembuatan produk pangan, hidrokoloid berfungsi sebagai penstabil, pembentuk tekstur, dan meningkatkan daya serap air produk. Hidrokoloid juga memiliki potensi meningkatkan daya lepas komponen aktif dan daya serap produk farmasi.

Kata kunci: hidrokoloid, pangan, nonpangan, mutu produk



Hydrocolloids are polymer components derived from vegetables, animals, or microbes that generally have the ability to absorb and bind water. There are various types of potential hydrocolloids that can be extracted and used as an added ingredient to improve product quality. The hydrocolloid extraction method can be done physically, chemically and biochemically. Some types of hydrocolloid can be extracted from several component parts of crops such as roots, seeds, fruits, tubers or shell. Hydrocolloids may have specific characteristics depending on its chain structure and functional groups. Hydrocolloid with many hydroxyl groups can absorb water easily. Hydrocolloids can be used as a component in producing the qualified food and non-food products. There are opportunities to develop hydrocolloids in food products as stabilizers, texture formation and water absorbent. Hydrocolloids have the potential to improve the quality power to release active component and absorption of pharmaceutical products.

Keywords: hydrocolloids, food, non-food, products quality


hydrocolloids, food, non-food, products quality

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jp3.v37n1.2018.p17-25


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