BIOFORTIFIKASI MINERAL FE DAN ZN PADA BERAS: PERBAIKAN MUTU GIZI BAHAN PANGAN MELALUI PEMULIAAN TANAMAN

Siti Dewi Indrasari, Kristamtini Kristamtini

Abstract


ABSTRACT

Rice is the staple food of most people in Indonesia and some countries in Asia. As the main food, rice is known to have inadequate micro nutrition so that it is potential to cause malnutrition for consumers. Biofortification is one of the innovations in improving the nutritional quality of rice. The benefits of biofortification include: (1) can be developed in basic foodcrops, (2) cheaper and beneficial in terms of cultivation because the seeds that have been fortified are only needed once in the first use, then the seed of the next crop can be further developed by other farmers, (3) beneficial to nutritious consumer communities, and (4) high production and environmentally friendly. Important minerals such as Fe (iron) and Zn (zinc) in rice can be increased through biofortification programs into Fe and Zn dense rice. Highly nutritious rice derived from local rice and superior varieties needs to be developed after going through the process of release varieties. Prior to that, the variety also needs to be registered to competent parties to be protected as asset and intellectual property rights (IPR) of researchers from theft and illegal acknowledgment by others for personal gain. In addition, it is needed certification of rice labelled assurance of rice varieties produced through plant breeding to increase economic added value and protect consumer rights.

Keywords: Rice, biofortification, nutrition quality, plant breeding

 

ABSTRAK

Beras adalah makanan pokok sebagian besar penduduk di Indonesia dan beberapa negara di Asia. Sebagai pangan utama, beras diketahui memiliki gizi mikro yang tidak memadai sehingga berpotensi menimbulkan kekurangan gizi bagi konsumen. Biofortifikasi merupakan salah satu inovasi dalam meningkatkan mutu gizi beras. Keuntungan biofortifikasi antara lain: (1) dapat dikembangkan pada bahan makanan pokok, (2) lebih murah dan menguntungkan dari segi budi daya karena benih yang telah terfortifikasi hanya diperlukan sekali di awal penggunaan, selanjutnya benih dari pertanaman berikutnya dapat dikembangkan lebih lanjut oleh petani lain, (3) bermanfaat bagi masyarakat konsumen rawan gizi, dan (4)produksi tinggi dan ramah lingkungan. Kadar mineral penting seperti Fe (besi) dan Zn (seng) pada beras dapat ditingkatkan melalui program biofortifikasi menjadi beras kaya Fe dan Zn. Beras bergizitinggi yang berasal dari padi lokal maupun varietas unggul perlusegera dikembangkan setelah melalui proses pelepasan varietas. Sebelum itu, varietas tersebut juga perlu didaftarkan kepada pihak kompeten untuk dilindungi sebagai aset dan hak kekayaan intelektual (HKI) para peneliti dari pencurian dan pengakuan illegal oleh pihak lain untuk kepentingan pribadi. Selain itu diperlukan pula sertifikasi beras berlabel jaminan varietas dari varietas padi yang dihasilkan melalui pemuliaan tanaman guna meningkatkan nilai tambah ekonomi dan melindungi hak konsumen.

Kata kunci: Padi, biofortifikasi, mutu gizi, pemuliaan tanaman


Keywords


Rice, biofortification, nutrition quality, plant breeding

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jp3.v37n1.2018.p9-16

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