PERKEMBANGAN PERAKITAN VARIETAS DAN TEKNIK BUDI DAYA JAGUNG ANTIOKSIDAN SEBAGAI PANGAN FUNGSIONAL

M Yasin HG, A. Haris Talanca, M Jana Mejaya

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Jagung antioksidan mengandung beta karoten pada endosperm yang bermanfaat untuk kesehatan, antara lain dapat mencegah buta dini (rabun/katarak), kerontokan rambut, memperkuat jaringan tubuh, dan mencegah gizi buruk pada anak balita. Kementerian Pertanian telah melepas tiga varietas jagung antioksidan kaya beta karoten, dua dari jenis bersari bebas (varietas Provit A1 dan Provit A2) dan satu dari jenis hibrida (varietas Bima Provit A1) masing-masing dengan kadar beta karoten 155,3-281,6% lebih tinggi dari jagung biasa. Potensi hasil jenis bersari bebas dapat mencapai 7,36 t/ha dan jenis hibrida 9,85 t/ha. Budi daya jagung antioksidan sama dengan jagung biasa. Aspek yang perlu mendapat perhatian adalah isolasi jarak tanaman, minimal 300 m, dan isolasi waktu tanam 3 minggu setelah tanam dengan tanaman jagung biasa. Hal ini diperlukan untuk menghindari xenia effect, yaitu pengaruh tepungsari jagung biasa yang menyerbuki jagung antioksidan sehingga kadar antioksidannya akan menurun dan statusnya kembali sama dengan jagung biasa. Hasil panen dapat dijadikan bahan baku industry berbagai makanan olahan bergizi tinggi. Pengembangan jagung antioksidan, terutama di Kawasan Timur Indonesia perlu peran pemerintah setempat dalam upaya mempercepat adopsi oleh petani.

Kata kunci: Jagung, antioksidan, beta karoten, pangan fungsional


 

ABSTRACT

Antioxidant maize contains beta carotene in the endosperm that is beneficial for health, such as can prevent early blindness (blindness / cataract), hair loss, strengthen body tissues, and prevent malnutrition in children under five. The Ministry of Agriculture has released three varieties of beta-carotene-rich antioxidant maize, two of the free-range (Provit A1 and Provit A2) varieties and one of the hybrid varieties (Bima Provit A1) each with carotene beta levels of 155.3 to 236.6 % higher than ordinary corn. The potential of free pollen type yield can reach 7.36 t / ha and hybrid type 9.85 t / ha. The cultivation of antioxidant corn is the same as ordinary corn. Aspects that need attention are isolation of plant spacing, at least 300 m, and isolation of planting time 3 weeks after planting with ordinary corn crops. This is necessary to avoid the xenia effect, which is the effect of ordinary corn corn that pollinate antioxidant corn so that its antioxidant levels will decrease and its status is the same as ordinary corn. Yields can be used as industrial raw materials of various highly processed nutritious foods. Development of antioxidant maize, especially in Eastern Indonesia needs the role of local government in an effort to accelerate adoption by farmers.

Keywords: Maize, antioxidant, beta caroten, functional food.


Keywords


Maize, antioxidant, beta caroten, functional food.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jp3.v37n1.2018.p33-39

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