Peran Konservasi Dan Karakterisasi Plasma Nutfah Padi Beras Merah Dalam Pemuliaan Tanaman

Higa Afza

Abstract


ABSTRACT
The long duration of cultivation of local red rice (more than 134 days) and its tall stem (average above 164 cm) led to a decline of farmers' preferences to grow red rice. In fact, based on research, red rice demonstrated anti-oxidants higher than that of white rice and good for glucose dietary. Currently only a small portion of red rice are grown extensively to meet the consumption needs of the community that increasingly aware the superiority of red rice. While the majority of red rice varieties which are not constantly planted would be threatened by genetic erosion. Indonesian Center for Agricultural Biotechnology and Genetic Resources Research and Development has mandate for ex situ preservation of food crops, including red rice. Until now, a total of 54 varieties have been collected through exploration in almost all regions in Indonesia.
Broad plant genetic diversity conserved will contribute to plant breeding program.
Keywords: Red rice, conservation, characterization, plant breeding, genetic resource

Abstrak

Karakteristik padi beras merah yang memiliki umur dalam (lebih dari 134 hari) dan postur tanaman yang tinggi (rata-rata 164 cm) menyebabkan preferensi petani untuk membudidayakan padi beras merah cenderung menurun. Menurut hasil penelitian, beras merah mengandung antioksidan yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan beras putih serta dianjurkan untuk diet gula. Saat ini hanya sebagian kecil plasma nutfah padi beras merah yang ditanam secara luas untuk memenuhi kebutuhan, khususnya kalangan masyarakat yang makin menyadari keutamaan kandungan gizi beras merah. Sementara sebagian besar plasma nutfah padi beras merah tidak ditanam secara terus-menerus sehingga akan mengalami erosi genetik. Oleh karena itu, Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi dan Sumberdaya Genetik Pertanian sebagai lembaga yang memiliki mandat pelestarian tanaman pangan, terus mela-kukan konservasi ex-situ. Hingga kini 54 varietas/galur padi beras merah telah dikumpulkan melalui eksplorasi dari hampir seluruh daerah di Indonesia dan telah dikarakterisasi. Dengan adanya keragaman genetik padi beras merah yang berasal dari berbagai daerah di tanah air, diharapkan program pemuliaan tanaman dapat berjalan sesuai dengan tujuan.


Keywords


Red rice;conservation; characterization; plant breeding;genetic resource

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jp3.v35n3.2016.p143-153

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