Pemanfaatan Kultur Pediococcus Acidilactici F-11 Penghasil Bakteriosin sebagai Penggumpal pada Pembuatan Tahu

Eni Harmayani, Endang S. Rahayu, Titiek F. Djaafar, Citra Argaka Sari, Tri Marwati

Abstract


Tahu merupakan hasil penggumpalan protein kedelai oleh whey yang terfermentasi spontan (kecutan).  Permasalahan yang dihadapi pengrajin tahu yaitu munculnya flavor asam pada tahu yang dihasilkan dari penggumpal tipe asam, sehingga perlu alternatif bahan penggumpal. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk  (i) mengetahui pertumbuhan P. acidilactici F-11 dan produksi bakteriosin dalam whey tahu,  (ii) mempelajari pemanfaatan kultur P. acidilactici F-11 sebagai penggumpal pada pembuatan tahu dan (iii) mengetahui kualitas mikrobiologis dan organoleptik tahu selama penyimpanan pada suhu 4oC. Penelitian terdiri dari 3  tahap.  Pertama,  pertumbuhan P. acidilactici F-11  dan produksi bakteriosin. Kedua, pemanfaatan kultur sebagai penggumpal tahu. Ketiga, uji kualitas mikrobiologi (total bakteri) dan organoleptik (tekstur, pH, warna, flavor, dan kenampakan)  tahu selama penyimpanan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa P. acidilactici F-11 tumbuh lebih baik dalam whey dengan penambahan 1% sukrosa, pada suhu 37oC, namun tidak sebaik dalam media TGE cair. Aktivitas bakteriosin dapat dideteksi dengan adanya zona jernih yang jelas pada media TGE agar dan perpanjangan fase lag bakteri indikator, P. acidilactici LB-42.  Total bakteri awal pada tahu antara 3,9.105 - 9,1.105 CFU/g. Selama penyimpanan, total bakteri pada tahu kontrol meningkat sebesar 2 log cycle, sedangkan tahu dengan kultur P. acidilactici F-11 hasil fermentasi suhu 37oC dan suhu kamar meningkat sebesar 1,5 dan 1 log cycle. Tahu yang dihasilkan dari kultur P. acidilactici F-11 sebagai penggumpal memiliki tekstur lebih lunak dan kompak serta flavor tidak asam dibanding tahu kontrol.Tahu dengan kultur P. acidilactici F-11 hasil fermentasi pada suhu kamar memiliki kualitas organoleptik sama dengan tahu dengan kultur P. acidilactici F-11 hasil fermentasi pada suhu 37oC.

 

Utilization of bacteriocin producer culture Pediococcus acidilactici F11 as coagulant in tofu processing

Tofu is a food product made from soy protein coagulated with spontaneously fermented whey. One of problem in tofu processing is the presence of acid flavor of tofu due to the use of acid coagulant type the coagulant alternative become urgently required. The purposes of this research were (i) to study the growth and bacteriocin production of P acidilactici F-11 in tofu whey, (ii) to study the utilization of P. acidilactici F-11 culture as coagulant in tofu production, and (iii) to investigate microbiological and sensory quality of tofu coagulated with the culture during storage at 4°C. The reseach was conducted in three steps including: production of bacteriocin from P acidilactici F11, utilization of P. acidilactici F-11 culture as coagulant on tofu production, and total bacteria and sensory analysis of tofu during storage. The result showed that the growth of P. acidilactici F-11 in whey with addition 1 % sucrose at 37°C was better than that without sucrose but not as good as the growth in TGE broth. Bacteriocin activity was detected by appearance of clear zone on TGE agar and prolonged lag phase of indicator bacteria, P. acidilactici LB-42. The initial bacterial count on tofu was 3.9xI0' - 9.1xlO'CFU/g. During storage, bacterial count of control increased by 2 log cycle, whereas tofu coagulated with P. acldilactici F-11 culture at 3rC and room temperature increased by 1.5 and 1 log cycle, respectively. Tofu coagulated with P. acidilactici F-11 culture had smoother and more compact texture and less sour than control. The sensory quality of tofu coagulated with P. acidilactici F-11 culture at room temperature was similar to tofu coagulated with P. acidilactici F-11 culture a t 37°C.


Keywords


whey tahu; P. acidilactici F-11; bakteriosin; penggumpal; tahu; tofu whey; bacteriocin; coagulant; tofu

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jpasca.v6n1.2009.10-20

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