Optimasi Pembuatan Produk Turunan Minyak Nabati Monoasilgliserol Secara Esterifikasi Enzimatis

Prima Luna, Nuri Andarwulan, Tri Haryati

Abstract


Monoasilgliserol (MAG) dari asam laurat merupakan salah satu produk turunan dari minyak nabati yang memiliki keistimewaan, berfungsi sehagai emulsifier, pengawet pangan, sanitizer, dan food supplement untuk meningkatkan imunitas tubuh. Penelitian ini bertujuan mencari kondisi optimum pembuatan monoasilgliserol dengan parameter komposisi MAG melaiui proses esterifikasi menggunakan enzim lipase imobil sebagai katalis. Metode esterifikasi enzirnatis kontinyu dilakukan pada reaktor packed bed sirkulasi. Rancangan percobaan optimasi pada penelitian ini menggunakan Central Composite Design dari Response Surface Methods (RSM). Suhu dan waktu reaksi merupakan faktor percobaan penelitian ini. Kondisi reaksi esterifikasi enzimatis kontinyu rnenggunakan rasio gliserol/asam lemak (5:1); rasio pelarut/substrat 8,8:1 dan residence time 23,57 menit. Hasil reaksi esterifikasi menggunakan RSM menunjukkan persamaan kuadrat optimasi MAG adalah Y= - 61,700 + 6,088 x1+3,259 x2 - 0,065 x12 + 0,017 x1x2 - 1,792 x22 dan menghasilkan MAG maksimum pada suhu dan waktu reaksi optimum 46,92°C (47±0,5)°C and 1,1 jam. Hasil validasi reaksi esterifikasi sebanyak lima kali ulangan menggunakan enzim lipase pada kondisi di atas menghasilkan rendemen 81,09±2,99% dengan komposisi MAG 83,15±3,51%. Koefisien keragaman untuk validasi rendemen dan komposisi MAG yaitu 3,69 and 4,25%. MAG memiliki sifat fisikokimia: bilangan asam 1,78±008%, bilangan peroksida 0,49±0,14 meq O2/kg MAG, kadar gliserol bebas 0,26%, dan memiliki kisaran titik leleh 53-53,5°C.

 

Synthesis Optimization of Monoacylglyserol by Enzimatic Esterification.

Monoacyglycerol (MAG) from lauric acid is a superior product derived from vegetable oil, which can be used as emulsifier, food preservative, sanitizer, and food supplement for increased human immunity. The aim of this research was to obtain the optimum conditions for monoacylglycerol synthesis based on MAG content using commercialized lipase. The Central Composite Design of Response Surface Methods (RSM) was used to arrange the experiments. Temperature and reaction time were the two variables investigated in the present study. Continuous enzymatic esterification was conducted in a circulated packed bed reactor with glycerol/oil molar ratio 5: I, solvent/substrate ratio 8.8:1 (wt/wt) and residence time 23.57 minute. The result showed that the quadratic equation for synthesis optimization of MAG was Y= - 61,700 + 6,088 x1+3,259 x2 - 0,065 x12 + 0,017 x1x2 - 1,792 x22 which produced maximum MAG at an optimum temperature of 46.92°C (47±0.5) °C and reaction time for 1,1 hour. Using the optimized conditions, lipase esterification, which was repeated five times, produced 81.09±2.99% yield with MAG content of 83.15±3.51%. Coefficients of variance for validation of the yield and MAG content were 3.69 and 4.25%, respectively. The MAG synthesized had the following physicochemical properties: acid value 1.78±008%, peroxide value 0.49±0.14 meq O2/kg MAG, free glycerol content 0.26%, and melting point 53-53.5°C


Keywords


Monoasilgliserol; esterifikasi enzimatis; reaktor packed bed; fisikokimia; monoacylglyccrol; enzymatic esterification; packed bed reactor; physicochemical.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jpasca.v8n1.2011.24-31

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