Ekstraksi Xilan dari Tongkol Jagung

Nur Richana, Tun Tedja Irawadi, M. Anwar Nur, Illah Sailah, Khaswar Syamsu, Yandra Arkenan

Abstract


Tongkol jagung merupakan limbah jagung terbesar (45%) yang mengandung xilan sekitar 12% dan belum banyak dimanfaatkan. Tongkol jagung mempunyai prospek untuk bahan baku industri xilan, yang merupakan bahan baku industri furfural, gula xilitol, dan bahan baku untuk media pertumbuhan bakteri xilanase. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan metode ekatraksi xilan dari tongkol jagung dan karakterisasi xilan yang dihasilkan. Ekstraksi xilan dari tongkol jagung dilakukan dengan dua tahap yaitu proses delignifikasi menggunakan NaOCl (0,5; 1,0; 2,5; 5 dan 7,5%) kemudian pengendapan xilan dengan perlakuan rasio supernatan dan etanol 1:1; 1:2; 1:3; dan 1:4. Ekstrak xilan selanjutnya diuji kelarutan pada pelarut organik, asam, alkali, air panas dan dingin. Analisis kualitatif dan kuantitatif xilan dilakukan dengan Khromatografi Cair Kinerja Tinggi . Hasi l penelit ian menunjukkan kombinasi perlakuan konsentrasi NaOCl 0,5% dan perbandingan supernatan:etanol 1:3 (v/v), menghasilkan rendemen xilan tertinggi (12,95%). Analisis dengan Khromatografi Cair Kinerja Tinggi menghasilkan khromatogram xilan dengan kemurnian 97,47%. Xilan yang dihasilkan sangat larut dalam alkali (NaOH 1%), larut dalam air panas dan dingin.


Extraction Of Xylan From Corn Cob

Corn cob is the biggest part of corn waste (45%) which contain about 12% xylan which has not been utilized. Corn cob can be used as raw material of production of xylan. Xylan is the raw material for furfural, xylitol industry, and growth medium for microorganism producing xylanase.The objectives of this research was to find out the method of extracting the xylan, and characterization of xylan produced. The extraction procedure were done in two steps, firstly delignification using NaOCI (0.5; 1.0; 2.5; 5 and 7.5%) and then precipitation using ethanol with the ratio of ethanol and supernatant (I: I; 1:2; 1:3; and 1:4). The solubility of xylan produced in organicsolvent, acid, alkaline solvent and in cold and hot water was observed. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of xylan were done using High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The research result showed that the highest yield (12.95%) whith purity (97.47%) was produced by 0.5% NaOCI and 1 : 3 ratio of ethanol and supernathant combination treatment. The highest solubility of xylan was in alkaline solvent (NaOH 1%), and soluble in hot and cool water.



Keywords


xilan; tongkol jagung; xylan; corn corb.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jpasca.v4n1.2007.38-43

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