Pengaruh Waktu Tanam dan Zat Pengatur Tumbuh Mepiquat Klorida terhadap Pembungaan dan Pembijian Bawang Merah (TSS)

Rini Rosliani, - Suwandi, Nani Sumarni

Abstract


Percobaan dilaksanakan di Kebun Percobaan Balai Penelitian Tanaman Sayuran di Lembang. Budidaya bawang merah dapat dilakukan melalui penggunaan umbi bibit atau true shallot seed (TSS). Keuntungan TSS adalah lebih mudah, murah, volume lebih sedikit, dan bebas virus. Banyak cara untuk meningkatkan pembungaan dan pembijian bawang merah, antara lain melalui waktu tanam yang tepat atau aplikasi ZPT. Tujuan percobaan adalah untuk mendapatkan waktu tanam yang tepat serta untuk mempelajari pengaruh ZPT terhadap pembungaan dan pembijian bawang merah. Perlakuan terdiri atas petak utama yaitu waktu tanam bulan Juli, Agustus, September, dan Oktober dan anak petak yaitu perlakuan pembungaan: kontrol, mepiquat khlorida, dan mepiquat klorida + polinator buatan dengan tangan. Rancangan percobaan adalah petak terpisah dengan tiga ulangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan tidak terdapat interaksi antara perlakuan waktu tanam dengan perlakuan pembungaan terhadap pertumbuhan, pembungaan, dan pembijian bawang merah di dataran tinggi Lembang. Waktu tanam berpengaruh nyata terhadap pertumbuhan, pembungaan, dan pembijian bawang merah di dataran tinggi Lembang, sedangkan ZPT mepiquat klorida dan polinator buatan tidak berpengaruh nyata. Penanaman bulan September menghasilkan berat biji per petak tertinggi dengan hasil sebesar 27,5 g per petak luas 9 m2 atau setara dengan 22,92 kg/ha dengan efisiensi lahan 75%. Pemilihan waktu tanam yang tepat dapat digunakan untuk memproduksi biji TSS yang tinggi.

Effect of planting time and plant growth regulator mepiquat chloride on flowering and seed-set of shallot. Cultivation of shallot could be conducted by using bulb or true shallot seed (TSS). The benefecial of TSS were easier, cheaper, small volume, and free-virus. Many methods for increasing flowering and seed-set were by appropriate planting time and application of plant growth regulator. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Field of IVEGRI Lembang. The objectives of the experiment were to determine appropriate planting time and the effect of plant growth regulator (PGR) mepiquat chloride on flowering and seed-set of shallot. The treatments were arranged in a split plot design with three replications. Four planting time of July, August, September, and October were assigned to main plots, and pgr treatments of control, pgrpgrpgr mepiquat chloride, and PGR mepiquat chloride + artificial hands pollinator were assigned to subplots. The results showed that there was no interaction between planting time and pgr treatments on flowering and seed-set of shallot grown in Lembang. Planting time influenced significantly the growth, flowering, and seed-set of shallot, meanwhille pgr mepiquat chloride and artificial pollinator by hands had no significant effect. Planting time on September produced the highest seed weight per plot of 27.5 g per 9 m2 or equivalent to 22.92 kg/ha at land efficiency of 75%. The appropriate planting time could be applied to produce the high seed-set of shallot.


Keywords


Allium ascallonicum; TSS; Planting time; PGR; Mepiquat chloride; Flowering; Seed-set

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v15n3.2005.p%25p

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