Karakter Fisiologis dan Peranan Antibiosis Bakteri Perakaran Graminae terhadap Fusarium dan Pemacu Pertumbuhan Tanaman Pisang

A Munif, I Djatnika, - Widodo

Abstract


ABSTRAK. Perakaran tanaman famili Graminae memiliki kerapatan populasi bakteri yang tinggi dan berpotensi digunakan sebagai agensia pengendalian hayati. Penelitian ini bertujuan mempelajari karakter fisiologis bakteri rizosfer dan endofit perakaran tanaman famili Graminae serta peranannya sebagai bakteri antibiosis terhadap Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) secara in vitro dan pemacu pertumbuhan tanaman. Tanaman indikator yang digunakan dalam uji kemampuan bakteri dalam memacu pertumbuhan tanaman adalah mentimun. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Mikologi dan Rumah Kaca Institut Pertanian Bogor, berlangsung dari bulan Juni sampai November 2003. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perakaran rumput gajah memiliki kerapatan populasi bakteri rizosfer yang paling tinggi yaitu 8,12 log cfu/g bobot basah akar, sedangkan populasi bakteri endofit yang tertinggi ditemukan pada perakaran sorgum yaitu 4,02 log cfu/g bobot basah akar. Empat puluh dua isolat dari 182 isolat diuji karakter fisiologisnya menggunakan medium spesifik. Semua isolat yang diuji, masing-masing sebesar 60,41, 52,08, 4,16, 18,75, 52,09, dan 18,75%, memiliki kemampuan aktivitas selulolitik, proteolitik, kitinolitik, produksi HCN, mela-rutkan fosfat, dan fluoresensi. Berdasarkan hasil uji secara in vitro menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap, diketahui bahwa 21,45% dari isolat bakteri yang diuji, memiliki kemampuan antibiosis terhadap Foc, dan lebih sepertiganya (7,70%) berasal dari bakteri endofit perakaran padi. Persentase daya hambat bakteri pada media TSA lebih tinggi dibandingkan pada media PDA dan PDA+TSA. Dari hasil uji secara in vivo pada tanaman mentimun menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok, diketahui bahwa 22,92% dari 52 isolat bakteri yang diuji, dapat meningkatkan secara nyata pertumbuhan tanaman. Hasil penelitian ini memberikan informasi bahwa bakteri yang berasal dari rizosfer dan endofit perakaran Graminae mempunyai kemampuan menghambat perkembangan F. oxysporum f.sp. cubense secara in vitro dan meningkatkan pertumbuhan tanaman.

ABSTRACT. Eliza, A. Munif, I Djatnika, and Widodo. 2007. Physiological Characters and Antibiosis Activity of Gramineous Crops Rhizobacteria, Againts Fusarium and Banana Growth Promoting. Roots of Gramineous colonized by various populated bacteria are potential as biological control agents to various soil-borne plant pathogens. This research was conducted to study some physiological characteristics, antibiosis activity to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), and plant growth promoting effect of gramineous crops roots bacteria to bananas. Cucumber was used as an indicator plant to detect plant growth activity. The experiment was conducted at Mycology Laboratory and Glasshouse Bogor Agriculture Institute from June until November 2003. Highest level population density of rhizobacteria (8.12 log cfu/g fresh root) was showed by giant grass roots, while endophytic bacteria were indicated by sorghum roots (4.02 log cfu/g fresh root). Forty two isolates of 182 isolates was physiologically characterized using specific medium. Among of tested bacteria, 60.41, 52.08, 4.16, 18.75, 52.09, and 18.75%, showed the capability in cellulolitic, proteolitic, HCN production, phosphate solubilization, and fluorescent activities, respectively. Using dual culture test of a randomized complete design, 21.45% of 182 isolates showed antibiosis activity against Foc, and more than one third (7.7%) of those were endophytic bacteria from rice roots. Inhibition ability of bacteria on TSA medium was higher than on PDA or PDA + TSA. Based on bioassay test in greenhouse used randomized block design, 22.92 % of 52 isolates have growth promoting activity on tested plant. Bacteria from rhizosphere and endophytic of Gramineous roots have ability to inhibit of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense and increasing plant growth.

Keywords


Musa sp.; Graminae; Bakteri perakaran; Karakter fisiologis; Antibiosis; Pemacu pertumbuhan

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v17n2.2007.p%25p

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