Kebergantungan Dua Kultivar Pepaya terhadap Cendawan Mikoriza Arbuskula

Irwan Muas

Abstract


Dua kultivar pepaya telah diinokulasi dengan lima spesies cendawan mikoriza arbuskula (CMA) dalam sebuah percobaan di rumahkaca. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui kebergantungan dua kultivar pepaya terhadap cendawan mikoriza. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Rumahkaca Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, dari bulan Agustus sampai November tahun 2001. Penelitian ini disusun menurut rancangan acak kelompok dalam pola faktorial dengan tiga ulangan. Faktor pertama adalah isolat CMA, terdiri dari lima jenis ditambah kontrol (kontrol, Glomus etunicatum, Glomus manihotis, Gigaspora margarita, Acaulospora tuberculata, dan Scutellospora heterogama). Faktor kedua adalah kultivar pepaya, yaitu dampit dan sarirona. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kedua kultivar pepaya dapat berasosiasi dengan lima spesies CMA. Isolat A. tuberculata dan G. etunicatum serta kultivar sarirona, secara mandiri memberikan nilai lebih tinggi terhadap serapan fosfor, bobot kering pupus, dan relative mycorrhizal dependency (RMD). Acaulospora tuberculata dan G. etunicatum meningkatkan bobot kering pupus berturut-turut 1.137 dan 1.768% lebih tinggi dibanding kontrol, dengan nilai RMD 89,18 dan 94,29%. Kultivar sarirona mempunyai serapan fosfor, bobot kering pupus, dan nilai RMD yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan dampit. Penggunaan CMA mempunyai prospek yang baik untuk meningkatkan produktivitas pepaya terutama pada lahan bereaksi masam dan rendah fosfor.

Mycorrhizal dependency of two papaya cultivars. Two papaya cultivars were inoculated with five species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) in a greenhouse experiment. The aim of this experiment was to study mycorrhizal dependency on two papaya cultivars. The experiment was conducted at the Screenhouse of Agriculture Faculty of Padjadjaran University, Bandung, from August until November 2001. This experiment was laid in a randomized blocks design in factorial pattern with three replications. The first factor was the AMF isolates i.e. five AMF isolates plus control (control, Glomus etunicatum, Glomus manihotis, Gigaspora margarita, Acaulospora tuberculata, and Scutellospora heterogama). The second factor was papaya cultivars, consisted of dampit and sarirona. The results showed that both papaya cultivars could associated with five species AMF isolates. Acaulospora tuberculata, and G. etunicatum isolates, and sarirona cultivar independently gave higher phosphorus uptake, shoot dry weight, and relative mycorrhizal dependency (RMD). Acaulospora tuberculata, and G. etunicatum isolates increased shoot dry weight 1,137 and 1,768% respectively higher than control, with RMD values were 89.18 and 94.29%. Sarirona cultivar showed higher phosphorus uptake, shoot dry weight, and RMD values than dampit cultivar. The utilization of AMF has good prospect to increase papaya productivity, especially on acid and low phosphorus soils.


Keywords


Carica papaya; Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus; P uptake; Shoot growth

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v15n2.2005.p%25p

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