Teknik Enkapsulasi Sederhana untuk Konservasi In vitro Jangka Menengah Tanaman Nenas (Ananas comosus) [Simple Encapsulation Technique for Medium Term Pineapple (Ananas comosus) In vitro Conservation]

Riry Prihatini, Sri Hadiati

Abstract


Konservasi in vitro tanaman nenas dilakukan untuk penyimpanan materi genetik sebelum dimanfaatkan. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan untuk mengembangkan teknik enkapsulasi yang dapat memperpanjang daya simpan benih sintetik nenas melalui perlakuan konsentrasi natrium alginat, suhu, dan media penyimpanan. Penelitian dilakukan di Laboratorium Kultur Jaringan, Balai Penelitian Tanaman Buah Tropika, mulai Januari hingga Desember 2017. Bahan yang digunakan adalah plantlet nenas aksesi 5X18(10). Penelitian dibagi menjadi dua subkegiatan. Metode yang digunakan pada subkegiatan pertama yaitu tunas mikro nenas dienkapulasi dengan metode tetes menggunakan natrium alginat 3% dan 4% serta penyimpanan dalam akuades steril dan tanpa media selama 30, 60, 120, dan 240 hari pada suhu 25oC. Penggunaan 4% natrium alginat dan media akuades steril dapat memperpanjang masa simpan benih sintetik nenas hingga 240 hari dengan daya regenerasi benih 100%. Pada subkegiatan kedua, perlakuan terbaik pada subkegiatan pertama dilanjutkan dengan perlakuan suhu penyimpanan 4oC. Benih sintetik nenas pada suhu penyimpanan tersebut hanya mampu bertahan hingga 60 hari, selebihnya tunas dalam benih menghitam dan tidak dapat ditumbuhkan kembali. Metode enkapsulasi untuk penyimpanan materi genetik yang dikembangkan dalam penelitian ini lebih sederhana dan efisien serta dapat diaplikasikan pada kegiatan konservasi in vitro jangka menengah tanaman nenas.

Keywords

Enkapsulasi; Konservasi; In vitro;  Tanaman nenas

Abstract

In vitro conservation of pineapple was conducted as preservation of genetic material before it was further utilized. This research was conducted to obtain encapsulation technique which expanded synthetic seeds shelf life by modifying concentration of sodium alginate, incubation media, and temperature. The research was conducted on Tissue Culture Laboratory of Indonesian Tropical Fruit Research Institute on January to December 2017. The materials which were used included pineapple micro shoots accessions 5X18(10). The research was divided into subactivities. The method which was applied on the first subactivity included encapsulation of pineapple micro shoots using drop method with sodium alginate 3% and 4%,incubation media sterile aquades and without media for 30, 60, 120, and 240 days on 25oC temperature.The use of 4% sodium alginate and sterile aquades incubation media prolonged the pineapple shelf life up to 240 days with 100% regeneration capability. On the second subactivity, the best treatment on the first activity was combined with 4oC incubation temperature. The pineapple synthetic seeds on this incubation temperature only survive up to 60 days, became blackening, and could not be regrowth. Encapsulation method which was developed on this study was simpler, more efficient, and able to be applied for medium term pineapple in vitro conservation.


Keywords


Encapsulation; Conservation; In vitro; Pineapple plants

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v29n1.2019.p1-8

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