Potensi Insektisida Nabati dalam Mengendalikan Aphis gossypii pada Tanaman Gerbera dan Kompatibilitasnya dengan Predator Menochilus sexmaculatus

Dedi Hutapea, Indijarto Budi Rahardjo, Budi Marwoto, Rudy Soehendi

Abstract


(The Potential of Botanical Insecticides to Control of Aphis gossypii on Gerbera and its Compatibility with Menochilus sexmaculatus)

Kutu daun Aphis gossypii diketahui dapat menghambat peningkatan produksi gerbera. Upaya pengendalian hama ini masih mengandalkan penggunaan insektisida sintetik. Namun, pada beberapa kasus, praktik pengendalian hama tersebut seringkali kurang efektif. Insektisida nabati merupakan salah satu teknik pengendalian ramah lingkungan yang dapat mengatasi permasalahan tersebut. Penelitian ini bertujuan menguji keefektifan formulasi insektisida nabati ekstrak daun suren (Toona sinensis) dan bunga piretrum (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium) dalam pengendalian A. gossypii pada tanaman gerbera serta kompatibilitasnya dengan Menochilus sexmaculatus. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Kebun Percobaan Balai Penelitian Tanaman Hias dari bulan Februari sampai November 2017. Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan adalah Rancangan Acak Lengkap dengan 12 perlakuan dan tiga ulangan. Perlakuan ekstrak bunga piretrum dan daun suren serta campuran keduanya (Formula I, Formula II, Formula III) diuji keefektifannya terhadap nimfa A. gossypii pada tanaman gerbera koleksi plasma nutfah nomor 01200002. Pengujian dilakukan pada dua taraf konsentrasi 0,35% dan 0,40% (w/v) dengan metode semprot serangga dan residu pada daun. Uji kompatibilitas insektisida nabati terhadap M. sexmaculatus dilakukan dengan metode semprot serangga. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa semua perlakuan insektisida nabati memiliki aktivitas insektisida, namun hanya perlakuan konsentrasi 0,40% yang menunjukkan persentase kematian tertinggi hama target. Penyemprotan langsung insektisida nabati pada nimfa A. gossypii lebih efektif dibandingkan dengan residu pada daun gerbera. Perlakuan Formula III 0,40% menunjukkan mortalitas tertinggi, dan keefektifannya setara dengan imidakloprid dalam mengendalikan kutu daun di rumah kaca. Ekstrak insektisida nabati uji kompatibel dengan M. sexmaculatus, sementara imidakloprid bersifat toksik terhadap keduanya. Dengan demikian, penggunaan imidakloprid untuk pengendalian kutu daun pada tanaman gerbera perlu dibatasi.

Keywords

Gerbera jamesonii; Aphis gossypii; Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium; Toona sinensis; Predator Coccinellidae

Abstract

Aphis gossypii is known as one of the most damaging aphid species in gerbera production. The botanical insecticide is one of the environmentally-friendly control techniques to overcome this pest. The objective of research was to examine the effectiveness of the botanical insecticide from Toona sinensis leaf and pyrethrum flowers extract to control gerbera aphids and its compatibility with Menochilus sexmaculatus. The research was conducted at Segunung Research Station from February to November 2017, using a Randomized Completed Design with 12 treatments and three replications. Extract of Toona leaf, and pyrethrum flowers, and mixture of both (Formula I, Formula II, Formula III) were tested for its effectiveness against A. gossypii nymphs on gerbera. Testing was arranged at two concentration levels of 0.35% and 0.40% (w/v) by insect spraying and leaf residual methods. The compatibility test against M. sexmaculatus was worked by using the insect spraying method. The results showed that all botanical insecticide had insecticidal activity, but only a concentration of 0.40% showed the highest target pests mortality. Direct spraying of A. gossypii is more effective than residue on the leaf. The Formula III 0.40% showed the highest mortality and equal to imidacloprid for controlling aphids in greenhouses. The botanical insecticide extract was compatible with M. sexmaculatus, while imidacloprid was toxic them both.


Keywords


Gerbera jamesonii; Aphis gossypii; Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium; Toona sinensis; Coccinellids predator

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abbott, W 1925, ‘A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide’, Economic Entomology, vol. 18, pp. 265–267.

Adfa, M, Kusnanda, AJ, Livandri, F, Rahmad, R, Darwis, W, Efdi, M, Ninomiya, M & Koketsu, M 2017, ‘Insecticidal activity of Toona sinensis against Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren’, Rasayan J. Chem., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 153–159.

Bergmann, J, Tapia, J, Bravo, M, Zaviezo, T & Flores, MF 2019, ‘Synthesis of citrophilus mealybug sex pheromone using chrysanthemol extracted from pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium)’, Natural Product Research, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 303–308.

BPS [Badan Pusat Statistik] 2019, Tabel dinamis produksi tanaman florikultura Indonesia, Diakses 11 Juni 2020,. .

Brownbridge, M & Buitenhuis, R 2019, ‘Integration of microbial biopesticides in greenhouse floriculture: the Canadian experience’, Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, vol. 165, pp. 4–12,

Bukero, A, Rustamani, MA, Abro, GH & Lodhi, A 2014, ‘Feeding potential of Menochilus sexmaculatus (Fabricius) against sucking insect pests’, Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences, no. 10, pp. 554–558.

Carver, M, Gross, F & Woodward, T 1996, Hemiptera, in the insect of Australia: a textbook for students and research workers Vol. 1 Edited by CSIRO Australia (ed.), Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, Australia.

Casida, JE & Durkin, KA 2013, ‘Neuroactive insecticides: targets, selectivity, resistance, and secondary effects’, Annual Review of Entomology, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 99–117.

Darwiati, W 2013, ‘Bioaktivitas tiga fraksinasi ekstrak biji suren terhadap mortalitas hama daun Eurema spp.’, Jurnal Penelitian Hutan Tanaman, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 99–108.

Daryanto, A, Syukur, M, Maharijaya, A & Hidayat, P 2018, ‘Diallel analysis of chili pepper resistance to melon aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) infestation in seedling phase’, Agrotech Journal, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 61–68.

Diningsih, E, Rahardjo, IB, Saepuloh, A, Saepuloh, Samsudin, A & Qodriyah, L 2010, ‘Pengendalian hama pengorok daun (Liriomiza sp.) (Diptera: Agromizydae) pada tanaman krisan (Dendranthema grandiflora Kitam) menggunakan empat jenis insektisida nabati’, Laporan Kegiatan Penelitian T.A. 2010 BALITHI, pp. 1–14.

Efendi, S, Yaherwandi & Novri, N 2016, ‘Studi preferensi dan tanggap fungsional Menochilus sexmaculatus dan Coccinella transversalis pada beberapa mangsa yang berbeda’, Pros. Sem. Nas. Masy. Biodiv. Indon., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 125–131.

Gautam, KK, Kaur, C, Raj, R, Kumar, S, Jaidi, M, Raj, SK, Purshottam, DK & Roy, RK 2017, ‘Elimination of Cucumber mosaic virus from gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii) cv. Zingaro through in vitro chemotherapy of capitulum explants’, Indian Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 641–647.

Hamedan, JH, Sohani, MM, Aalami, A & Nazarideljou, MJ 2019, ‘Genetic engineering of lignin biosynthesis pathway improved stem bending disorder in cut gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii) flowers’, Scientia Horticulturae, vol. 245, no. October 2018, pp. 274–279.

Henderson, CF & Tilton, EW 1955, ‘Tests with acaricides against the brown wheat mite’, Journal of Economic Entomology, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 157–161.

Herrick, NJ, Cloyd, RA & Raudenbush, AL 2019, ‘Systemic insecticide applications: effects on citrus mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) populations under greenhouse conditions’, Journal of Economic Entomology, vol. 112, no. 1, pp. 266–276.

Hosseini, A, Hosseini, M, Katayama, N & Mehrparvar, M 2017, ‘Effect of ant attendance on aphid population growth and above ground biomass of the aphid’s host plant’, European Journal of Entomology, vol. 114, no. February, pp. 106–112.

Hutapea, D, Rahardjo, IB & Marwoto, B 2019, ‘Abundance and diversity of natural enemies related to chrysanthemum aphid suppression with botanical insecticides’, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, vol. 399, no. 1.

Khaled, W, Fekih, I Ben, Nahdi, S, Souissi, R & Boukhris-Bouhachem, S 2018, ‘Transmission efficiency of potato leafroll virus by four potato colonizing aphid species in Tunisian potato fields’, Potato Research, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 89–96.

Lestari, F & Darwiati, W 2014, ‘Uji efikasi ekstrak daun dan biji dari tanaman suren, mimba dan sirsak terhadap mortalitas hama ulat gaharu’, Jurnal Penelitian Hutan Tanaman, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 165–171.

Li, W, Lu, Z, Li, L, Yu, Y, Dong, S, Men, X & Ye, B 2018, ‘Sublethal effects of imidacloprid on the performance of the bird cherry-oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi’, PLoS ONE, vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 1–13.

Lifia, YO & Hariance, R 2018, ‘Bauran pemasaran bunga gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii) di Kelompok Tani Boemi Nursery Jawa Barat’, Journal of Agribusiness and Community Empowerment, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 38–43.

Liu, XD, Xu, TT & Lei, HX 2017, ‘Refuges and host shift pathways of host-specialized aphids Aphis gossypii’, Scientific Reports, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 1–9.

Lokeshwari, D, Kumar, NKK & Manjunatha, H 2015, ‘Molecular diversity of the Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae): a potential vector of Potyviruses (Potyviridae)’, Annals of the Entomological Society of America, vol. 108, no. 4, pp. 621–633.

Ma, L, Li, MY, Chang, CY, Chen, FF, Hu, Y & Liu, XD 2019, ‘The host range of Aphis gossypii is dependent on aphid genetic background and feeding experience’, PeerJ, vol. 7, no. e7774.

Manners, AG, Dembowski, BR & Healey, MA 2013, ‘Biological control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), in gerberas, chrysanthemums and roses’, Australian Journal of Entomology, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 246–258.

Marys, E, Mejias, A, Rodríguez-Roman, E, Avilan, D, Hurtado, T, Fernandez, A, Zambrano, K, Garrido, M & Brito, M 2014, ‘The first report of tomato spotted wilt virus on gerbera and chrysanthemun in Venezuela’, Plant Disease, vol. 98, no. 8, p. 1161.

McCarville, MT, Kanobe, C, MacIntosh, GC & O’Neal, M 2011, ‘What is the economic threshold of soybean aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in enemy-free space?’, Journal of Economic Entomology, vol. 104, no. 3, pp. 845–852.

Mohammed, AAAH, Desneux, N, Fan, Y, Han, P, Ali, A, Song, D & Gao, XW 2018, ‘Impact of imidacloprid and natural enemies on cereal aphids: integration or ecosystem service disruption?’, Entomologia Generalis, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 47–61.

Nikolova, I & Georgieva, N 2014, ‘Effects of biological insecticides NeemAzal T/S and pyrethrum FS EC and their interaction with organic products in treatments of pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on Pisum sativum (L.)’, Pestic. Phytomed., vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 177–185.

Nikolova, I, Georgieva, N & Tahsin, N 2015, ‘Toxicity of neem and pyrethrum products applied alone and in combination with different organic products to some predators and their population density’, Romanian Agricultural Research, vol. 32, no. 291–301.

Nurmalinda & Yani, A 2009, ‘Preferensi konsumen hotel terhadap bunga potong gerbera’, J. Hort., vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 450–458.

Oliveira, CR, Domingues, CEC, de Melo, NFS, Roat, TC, Malaspina, O, Jones-Costa, M, Silva-Zacarin, ECM & Fraceto, LF 2019, ‘Nanopesticide based on botanical insecticide pyrethrum and its potential effects on honeybees’, Chemosphere, vol. 236, p. 124282.

Papanikolaou, NE, Kalaitzaki, A, Karamaouna, F, Michaelakis, A, Papadimitriou, V, Dourtoglou, V & Papachristos, DP 2018, ‘Nano-formulation enhances insecticidal activity of natural pyrethrins against Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and retains their harmless effect to non-target predators’, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 10243–10249.

Parvin, S, Zeng, X & Islam, MT 2012, ‘Bioactivity of Indonesian mahogany, Toona sureni (Blume) ( Meliaceae ), against the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)’, Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 354–358.

Pezzini, DT & Koch, RL 2015, ‘Compatibility of flonicamid and a formulated mixture of pyrethrins and azadirachtin with predators for soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) management’, Biocontrol Science and Technology, vol. 25, no. 9, pp. 1024–1035.

Pradani, FY, Widawati, M & Wijayanti, SPM 2019, ‘Uncovering potential of neem and pyrethrum extract as biolarvacide of Aedes aegypti for dengue control’, in IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, vol. 406, no. 1.

Radiyanto, I, Rahayuningtias, S & Widhianingtias, E 2011, ‘Kemampuan pemangsaan Menochilus sexmaculatus F. (Coleoptera : Coccinellidae) terhadap Rhopalosiphum maidis Fitch (Homoptera : Aphididae)’, J. Entomol. Indon., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 1–7.

Rahardjo, IB, Marwoto, B & Budiarto, K 2020, ‘Efficacy of selected plant extracts to control leaf miner (Lyriomyza spp.) in chrysanthemum’, AGRIVITA Journal of Agricultural Science, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 37–44.

Ramalho, FS, Fernandes, FS, Nascimento, ARB, Nascimento, JL, Malaquias, JB & Silva, CAD 2012, ‘Feeding damage from cotton aphids, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Aphididae), in cotton with colored fiber intercropped with fennel’, Annals of the Entomological Society of America, vol. 105, no. 1, pp. 20–27.

Somar, RO, Zamani, AA & Alizadeh, M 2019, ‘Joint action toxicity of imidacloprid and pymetrozine on the melon aphid , Aphis gossypii’, Crop Protection, vol. 124, p. 104850.

Sotelo-Leyva, C, Salinas-Sanchez, DO, Rivas-Gonzalez, JM, Dorado, O, Arias, DM, Gonzalez-Cortazar, M & Zamilpa, A 2019, ‘Aphidicidal activity of an aqueous fraction of Serjania schiedeana against Melanaphis sacchari’, Southwestern Entomologist, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 585–594.

Tunca, H, Kilincer, N & Ozkan, C 2014, ‘Toxicity and repellent effects of some botanical insecticides on the egg-larval parasitoid Chelonus oculator Panzer (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)’, Scientific Research and Essays, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 106–113.

Ullah, F, Gul, H, Desneux, N, Gao, X & Song, D 2019, ‘Imidacloprid-induced hormesis effects on demographic traits of the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii’, Entomologia Generalis, vol. 39, no. 3–4, pp. 325–337.

Wani, MA, Nazki, IT, Din, A, Iqbal, S, Wani, SA, Khan, FU & Neelofar 2018, ‘Floriculture sustainability initiative: the dawn of new era’, in E Lichtfouse (ed.), Sustainable Agriculture Reviews 27, Springer, Cham, pp. 91–127.

Wumuerhan, P, Yuntao, J & Deying, M 2020, ‘Effects of exposure to imidacloprid direct and poisoned cotton aphids Aphis gossypii on ladybird Hippodamia variegata feeding behavior’, Journal of Pesticide Science, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 24–28.

Xu, Z, Lu, M, Yang, M, Xu, W, Gao, J, Zhang, Y, Yang, Y & Tao, L 2017, ‘Pyrethrum-extract induced autophagy in insect cells: a new target?’, Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, vol. 137, pp. 21–26.

Yovkova, M, Petrovic-Obradovic, O, Tasheva-Terzieva, E & Pencheva, A 2013, ‘Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on ornamental plants in greenhouses in Bulgaria’, ZooKeys, no. 319, pp. 347–361.

Yuniarto, K, Kurniati, R, Suryawati & Meilasari, R 2018, ‘The phenotypic performances of gerbera local bali x rubby red hybrids’, AGRIVITA Journal of Agricultural Science., vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 8–14.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v30n1.2020.p75-86

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.
';



Copyright (c) 2020 Indonesian Center for Horticulture Research and Development

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 


Jurnal Hortikultura (J.Hort) has been indexed :

         

===================================================================================================================

 Creative Commons License
Junal Hortikultura is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at http://ejurnal.litbang.pertanian.go.id/index.php/jhort
Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at www.litbang.pertanian.go.id.

Indonesian Center for Horticulture Research and Development

Jl. Tentara Pelajar No. 3C Kampus Penelitian Pertanian Cimanggu Bogor 16124, Indonesia
Telp.  +62 251-8372096, 7565366, (Ext. 324) (Hunting System)
Faks.  +62 251-8387651, 8575664, 8372096
E-mail: redaksi.jhorti@gmail.com

ISSN: 0853-7097
E-ISSN: 2502-5120

 

free web stats

View My Stats