Aplikasi Pupuk Hayati Mikoriza untuk Meningkatkan Efisiensi Serapan Unsur Hara NPK serta Pengaruhnya terhadap Hasil dan Kualitas Umbi Bawang Merah

E Sumiati, O S Gunawan

Abstract


ABSTRAK. Salah satu cara memperbaiki hasil dan kualitas umbi bawang merah, yaitu dengan aplikasi pupuk NPK 15-15-15 dan pupuk hayati mikoriza. Penelitian dilakukan di Rumah Kaca Balai Penelitian Tanaman Sayuran, Lembang (1.250 m dpl) dari Juli-Oktober 2001. Penelitian menggunakan rancangan petak terpisah dengan 3 ulangan. Petak utama pupuk NPK 15-15-15 dosis 0, 2,5, dan 5,0 g/tanaman. Anak petak pupuk hayati mikoriza dosis 2,5, 5,0, dan 7,5 g/tanaman. Hasil penelitian mengungkapkan bahwa aplikasi pupuk NPK 15-15-15 dosis 2,5 g/tanaman yang dikombinasikan dengan pupuk hayati mikoriza dosis 2,5 g/tanaman meningkatkan persentase infeksi akar bawang merah oleh mikoriza. Jumlah spora yang terdeteksi pada rizosfer bawang merah yang terbanyak berasal dari aplikasi NPK 15-15-15 2,5 g/tanaman + pupuk hayati mikoriza 5 g/tanaman. Spesies mikoriza yang berasosiasi dengan tanaman bawang merah, yaitu Glomus sp., Glomus sp. hitam, dan Gigaspora sp.. Kandungan NPK tanaman serta pertumbuhannya meningkat oleh aplikasi NPK + pupuk hayati. Hasil umbi bawang merah nyata meningkat oleh aplikasi pupuk NPK 15-15-15 dosis 2,5-5,0 g/tanaman atau oleh aplikasi pupuk hayati mikoriza dosis 2,5-5,0 g/tanaman. Aplikasi kedua jenis pupuk tersebut tidak meningkatkan kandungan bahan kering umbi bawang merah.

ABSTRACT. Sumiati, E. and O.S. Gunawan. 2007. Application of Mycorrhizal Biofertilizer to Increase the Efficiency of NPK Uptake and its Effects on Yield and Quality of Shallot Bulbs. Yield and quality of shallot bulbs can be improved by application of NPK 15-15-15 in combination with mycorrhizal biofertilizer. Research was conducted at the greenhouse of Indonesian Vegetable Research Institute, Lembang (1,250 m asl) from July to October 2001. A split plot design with 3 replications was arranged. Main plot was dosage of NPK 15-15-15, viz. 0, 2.5, and 5.0 g/plant. Subplot was dosage of mycorrhizal biofertilizer, viz. 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 g/plant. Research results revealed that the application of 2.5 g/plant NPK 15-15-15 in combination with mycorrhizal biofertilizer 2.5 g/plant increased the percentage of root infected by mycorrhiza. While the highest number of mycorrhizal spores at shallot rhizosphere was gained from application of 2.5 g/plant NPK 15-15-15 + 5 g/plant mycorrhizal biofertilizer. Species of mycorrhiza which infected shallot roots were Glomus sp. black, Glomus sp., and Gigaspora sp.. NPK content and the growth of shallot were increased by application of NPK 15-15-15 and biofertilizer. The yield of shallot increased significantly by application of NPK 15-15-15 dosage of 2.5 to 5.0 g/plant or mycorrhizal biofertilizer dosage of 2.5 to 5.0 g/plant. Application of both NPK 15-15-15 and mycorrhizal biofertilizer did not increase the dry matter of shallot bulbs

Keywords


Allium ascalonicum; Serapan NPK; Mikoriza; Hasil umbi; Kualitas umbi

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v17n1.2007.p%25p

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