Respons Pembentukan Tunas Aksiler dan Adventif pada Kultur Anthurium secara In Vitro

Budi Winarto

Abstract


ABSTRAK. Perbanyakan bahan tanaman merupakan salah satu masalah penting dalam budidaya anthurium untuk tujuan komersial. Secara konvensional, tanaman ini diperbanyak melalui biji dan anakan, tetapi teknik ini memerlukan waktu dan proses yang lama hingga 3 tahun. Penelitian bertujuan mengetahui respons pembentukan tunas aksiler dan adventif pada kultur anthurium secara in vitro. Penelitian dilakukan di Laboratorium Kultur Jaringan, Balai Penelitian Tanaman Hias dari bulan Juli 2004 hingga Februari 2005. Variasi eksplan, seperti ruas batang kesatu dan kedua digunakan untuk induksi pembentukan tunas aksiler, sementara akar, hipokotil, dan daun muda digunakan untuk induksi tunas adventif. Eksplan-eksplan tersebut dipanen dari beberapa kultivar dan aksesi anthurium. Medium M2, M4, dan modifikasi medium M4 menggunakan 150 ml/l air kelapa, 2,5 mg/l 2,4-D, 2 g/l asam pantotenat, dan 50 ppm cefotaxim diuji dalam penelitian ini. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa keberhasilan kultur jaringan anthurium dipengaruhi oleh kultivar, jenis, dan kondisi eksplan, dan media tumbuhnya. Tiap eksplan dan kultivar/aksesi memiliki kompatibilitas yang berbeda dengan medium tumbuhnya. Induksi tunas adventif merupakan teknik perbanyakan yang lebih potensial dan sesuai dikembangkan pada anthurium dibandingkan induksi tunas aksiler. M4 merupakan medium dasar yang potensial dan sesuai untuk dikembangkan pada perbanyakan anthurium secara in vitro. Hasil penelitian ini diharapkan dapat menjadi salah satu bahan pertimbangan dalam mengembangkan dan mengaplikasikan teknik kultur jaringan pada perbanyakan anthurium.

ABSTRACT. Winarto, B. 2007. Response of Axillary and Adventitious Shoot Formation of In Vitro Anthurium Culture. Planting material propagation is one of important problems in anthurium cultivation for commercial purposes. Conventionally, the plant is generally propagated by seed and shoot, however those technique were time consuming. The objective of this experiment was to know response of axillary and adventitious shoot formation of in vitro anthurium culture. The experiment was conducted at Tissue Culture Laboratory, Indonesian Ornamental Crops Research Institute from July 2004 to February 2005. Variation of explant such as first and second node was used for induction of axillary shoot formation, while young root, hypocotyl, and leaf were used for stimulating adventitious shoot regeneration. The explants harvested from several cultivars and accessions of anthurium. Media of M2, M4, and modified-M4 using150 ml/l coconut water, 2.5 mg/l 2,4-D, 2 g/l pantothenic acid, and 50 ppm cefotaxim were used in this experiment. Results of the study indicated that the success of anthurium tissue culture was affected by cultivars, explant type and condition, and growth medium. Each explant and cultivar had its compatibility to different growth media. Adventitious shoot formation was potential and suitable technique to be developed than axillary shoot proliferation. M4 was the appropriate and suitable basic medium that could be developed for in vitro propagation of anthurium. Results of this research could be expected as one of important consideration points in developing and applying tissue culture technique on anthurium propagation.

Keywords


Anthurium sp.; Tunas aksiler; Tunas adventif; In vitro.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v17n1.2007.p%25p

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