Seleksi Substrat untuk Perbanyakan Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin dan Infektivitasnya terhadap Hama Penggerek Bonggol Pisang, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar

Ahsol Hasyim, H Yasir, - Azwana

Abstract


Seleksi substrat untuk perbanyakan Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin dan infektivitasnya terhadap hama penggerek bonggol pisang, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan Juni sampai Desember 2002 di Laboratorium Entomologi Balai Penelitian Tanaman Buah, Solok. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengetahui media substrat yang terbaik untuk perbanyakan B. bassiana dan infektivitasnya dalam mengendalikan hama penggerek bonggol pisang. Penelitian disusun dalam rancangan acak lengkap dengan lima perlakuan dan tiga ulangan. Perlakuan terdiri dari lima jenis media substrat yaitu beras, jagung, pupuk kandang, dedak halus, dan kontrol (air). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat variabilitas daya kecambah isolat B. bassiana yang dibiakkan pada substrat jagung, beras, pupuk kandang, dan dedak. Daya kecambah isolat B. bassiana yang dibiakkan pada media substrat jagung dan beras lebih tinggi (86,47 dan 76,67%) dibandingkan media substrat dedak dan pupuk kandang yaitu 31,67 dan 24,00%. Produksi konidia pada jagung dan beras lebih tinggi dan berbeda sangat nyata (2,8 x 108 konidia ml/l dan 1,96 x 108 konidia ml/l) dibandingkan dengan dedak dan pupuk kandang dengan jumlah konidia paling rendah berturut-turut 1,26 x 106 konidia ml/l dan 4,57 x 106 konidia ml/l. Mortalitas hama penggerek bonggol pisang, C. sordidus paling tinggi diperoleh setelah diaplikasikan dengan jamur B. bassiana hasil biakan pada substrat jagung dan beras berturut-turut yaitu 86,67 dan 76,67%. Sedangkan jamur B. bassiana hasil biakan pada substrat pupuk kandang dapat menyebabkan kematian hama penggerek bonggol paling rendah yaitu 29,54% (LT50). Hasil penelitian ini memberikan informasi bahwa substrat jagung dan beras merupakan media perbanyakan B. bassiana yang baik untuk mengendalikan hama penggerek bonggol pisang.

 

Selection of substrates for mass production of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin and their infectiveness to control banana weevil borer, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar. Experiment was conducted at Entomological Laboratory of Indonesian Fruit Research Institute from June to December 2002. The aim of this study was to find out the best substrates for mass production of B. bassiana and their infectivity to control banana weevil borer. The research used a randomized complete block design with five treatments and three replications. Treatments consisted of five substrates such as rice, maize, animal manure, rice siftings, and control (water). The results showed that there was variability in germination of fungal B. bassiana culture on solid media (maize, rice, animal manure, and rice siftings). Germination rate of B. bassiana cultured in maize and rice substrate were higher (86.47 and 76.67% respectively), than the germination rate of B. bassiana cultured in animal manure and rice siftings substrate (31.67 and 24.00% respectively). A total of conidia production on maize and rice substrate were significantly higher i.e. 2.8 x 108 conidia ml/l and 1.96 x 108 conidia ml/l respectively, than that of B. bassiana isolate on animal manure and rice siftings substrate (1.26 x 106 conidia ml/l and 4.57 x 106 conidia ml/l) respectively. The highest mortalities of adult banana weevil borer, Cosmopolites sordidus was obtained by application of B. bassiana produced form maize and rice substrates i.e. 86.67 and 76.67% respectively. While B. bassiana produced form animal manure caused lowest death of C. sordidus i.e. 29.54% (LT50). This study was undertaken to provide more information of maize and rice substrates as a media for mass production of B. bassiana to control banana weevil borer.


Keywords


Musa sp.; B. bassiana; C. sordidus; Substrates; Mass production; Infectivity; Mortality

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v15n2.2005.p%25p

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