Respon Karakter Morfo-Fisiologi Genotipe Tomat Senang Naungan Pada Intensitas Cahaya Rendah (The Respon of Morpho-Physiological Characters of Loving-Shade Genotypes at Low Light Intensity)

Dwiwanti Sulistyowati, Muhammad Ahmad Chozin, Muhammad Syukur, Maya Melati, Dwi Guntoro

Abstract


Tomat memiliki potensi untuk dikembangkan dengan sistem pertanaman berganda sebagai tanaman sela di bawah tegakan, baik di kehutanan, perkebunan, maupun pekarangan, sehingga mengalami stres cahaya rendah.  Stres cahaya rendah menyebabkan berbagai perubahan morfologi, anatomi dan fisiologi. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mempelajari karakter morfologi, anatomi dan fisiologi genotipe tomat pada intensitas cahaya rendah. Percobaan dilaksanakan di kebun percobaan Sekolah Tinggi Penyuluhan Pertanian (STPP) Bogor dari bulan Oktober 2014 sampai dengan Januari 2015. Percobaan menggunakan Rancangan Petak Tersarang (nested design) yang diulang tiga kali, faktor pertama terdiri atas dua taraf naungan, tanpa naungan (0%) dan naungan 50%. Faktor kedua berupa 50 genotipe tomat (ditapis menjadi 4 kelompok genotipe, yaitu senang, toleran, moderat dan peka naungan). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa genotipe tomat senang naungan mampu berproduksi lebih tinggi saat ternaungi, karena genotipe ini mampu beradaptasi lebih baik. Yaitu dengan cara meningkatkan tinggi tanaman, jumlah daun, luas daun, jumlah bunga dan jumlah buah dibandingkan genotipe peka. Terjadi peningkatan klorofil b lebih tinggi daripada klorofil a, sehingga terjadi penurunan yang lebih tinggi pada rasio klorofil a/b. Karakter yang berkorelasi dan berpengaruh langsung terhadap produksi tomat pada naungan 50% adalah luas daun, jumlah bunga, umur panen, rasio klorofil a/b, jumlah buah dan bobot per buah.

Keywords

Intensitas cahaya rendah; Karakter genotipe tomat

ABSTRACT

Tomatoes have the potential to be developed with multiple cropping systems as intercropping plants under stands, both in forestry, plantations, and yard, thus experiencing low light stress. Low light stress causes a variety of morphological, anatomical and physiological changes. The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological, anatomical and physiological characters of tomato genotypes at low light intensity. The experiments were conducted in the experimental field of Bogor Agricultural Extension Institute, in Bogor, from October 2014 to January 2015. The experiment was arranged in nested randomized design with two factors and three replication. The first factor consisted of two levels of shading intensity, i.e. without shade (0 %) and 50% shading. and the second factor was 50 tomato genotypes (4 groups of tomato genotypes, i.e. shade-loving, shade-tolerant, shade-moderate and shade-sensitive genotypes). The results showed that the shade-loving genotypes was capable of producing higher levels when shaded, as the genotype was able to adapt better. That was by increasing the plant height, leaf number, leaf area, flower number and fruit number compared to sensitive genotypes. Increased chlorophyll b is higher than chlorophyll a, resulting in a higher decrease in the ratio of chlorophyll a/b. Character that correlates and directly affects tomato production in 50% shade was leaf area, leaf number, harvesting time, a/b chlorophyll ratio, fruit number and fruit weight.


Keywords


Low light intensity; Tomato genotypes characters

Full Text:

PDF

References


Baharuddin, R, Chozin, MA & Syukur, M 2014, ‘Toleransi 20 genotipe tanaman tomat terhadap naungan’, Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy), vol. 42, no. 2.

Bahrun, A 2012, ‘Kajian ekofisiologi tanaman semusim penyusun agroforestri pada beberapa zona agroklimat di DAS Ciliwung Hulu’, Disertasi, Program Pascasarjana, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor.

Cabuslay, GS, Vergara, BS & Quintana, RU 1991, ‘Low light stress: Mechanism of tolerance and screening method’, Philippine Journal of Crop Science (Philippines) vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 39-42.

Djukri & Purwoko, BS 2003, ‘Pengaruh naungan paranet terhadap sifat toleransi tanaman talas (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott)’, Ilmu Pertanian, vol. 2, no. 10, pp. 17–25.

El-Abd, MTG, Shanan, SA, Abou-Hadid, AF & Saleh, MM 1994, ‘Effect of different shading densities on growth and yield of tomato and cucumber’, Egypt. J. Hort, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 64–69.

Hartoyo, APP, Wijayanto, N & Budi, SWR 2014, ‘Respon fisisologi dan produksi kedelai (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) toleran naungan berbasiskan agroforestri sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria (L.) Nielsen)’, J. Silvikultur Tropika, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 84–90.

Heliyanto, B 1996, ‘Kriteria seleksi pada Tozza-Yute’, Zuriat, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 46–50.

Khattak, AM, Salam, A & Nawab, K 2007, ‘Response of exotic tomato lines to different light intensities’, Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, vol. 23, no. 4, p. 927.

Kisman, Khumaida, N, Trikoesoemaningtyas, Sobir & Sopandie, D 2007, ‘Karakter morfo-fisiologi daun, penciri adaptasi kedelai terhadap intensitas cahaya rendah’, Bul. Agron, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 96–102.

Lange, T 1998, ‘Molecular biology of gibberellin synthesis’, Planta, vol. 204, no. 4, pp. 409–419.

Logan, BA, Demmig-Adams, B & Adams, WW 1999, ‘Acclimation of photosynthesis to the environment’, in Concepts in Photobiology, Springer, pp. 477–512.

Lorenzo, P, Sánchez-Guerrero, MC, Medrano, E, Garc’ia, ML, Caparrós, I & Giménez, M 2003, ‘External greenhouse mobile shading: effect on microclimate, water use efficiency and yield of a tomato crop grown under different salinity levels of the nutrient solution’, in International Symposium on Managing Greenhouse Crops in Saline Environment 609, pp. 181–186.

Manurung, GES, Roshetko, JM, Budidarsono, S & Kurniawan, I 2008, ‘Dudukuhan tree farming systems in West Java: how to mobilize self-strengthening of community-based forest management?’, in Smallholder Tree Growing for Rural Development and Environmental Services, Springer, pp. 99–116.

Muhuria, L, Tyas, KN, Khumaida, N, Sopandie, D & others 2006, ‘Adaptasi tanaman kedelai terhadap intensitas cahaya rendah: karakter daun untuk efisiensi penangkapan cahaya’, Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy), vol. 34, no. 3.

Pertiwi, HI, Soverda, N, E 2012, ‘Pengaruh naungan terhadap kerapatan stomata dan trikoma daun serta pertumbuhan dan hasil dua varietas tanaman kedelai (Glycine max (L) Merril)’, J. Agronomi, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 197–207.

Pierik, R, Cuppens, MLC, Voesenek, LACJ & Visser, EJW 2004, ‘Interactions between ethylene and gibberellins in phytochrome-mediated shade avoidance responses in tobacco’, Plant Physiology, vol. 136, no. 2,

pp. 2928–2936.

Pranoto, H 2012, ‘Kajian agroekologi sistem agroforestry di Daerah Aliran Sungai Cianjur’, Disertasi). Program Studi Agronomi dan Hortikultura, Sekolah Pascasarjana Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor.

Sasmita, P, Purwoko, BS, Sujiprihati, S, Hanarida, I, Dewi, IS & Chozin, MA 2006, ‘Evaluasi pertumbuhan dan produksi padi gogo haploid ganda toleran naungan dalam sistem tumpang sari’, Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy), vol. 34, no. 2.

Shehata, S, Elsagheer, AA, El-Helaly, MA, Saleh, SA & Abdallah, AM 2013, ‘Shading effect on vegetative and fruit characters of tomato plant’, Journal of Applied Sciences Research, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 1434–1437.

Sopandie, D, Chozin, MA, Sastrosumarjo, S, Juhaeti, T& S 2003a, ‘Toleransi padi gogo terhadap naungan’, Hayati, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 71–75.

Sopandie, D, Trikoesoemaningtyas, HT, Jufri, A & Takano, T 2003b, ‘Adaptability of soybean to shade stress: identification of morphological responses. Di dalam:[tidak disebutkan], editor’, in The 2nd Seminar toward Harmonization between Development and Environmental Conservation in Biological Production, pp. 15–16.

Soverda, N 2004, ‘Adaptasi tanaman padi gogo terhadap naungan’, Jurnal Agronomi, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 105–110.

Sulistyowati, D, Chozin, MA, Syukur, M, Melati, M & Guntoro, D 2016a, ‘Karakter genotipe tomat senang naungan pada intensitas cahaya rendah’, Jurnal Hortikultura, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 181–188.

Sulistyowati, D, Chozin, MA, Syukur, M, Melati, M & Guntoro, D 2016b, ‘Selection of shade-tolerant tomato genotypes.’, Journal of Applied Horticulture, vol. 18, no. 2.

Susanto, GWA & Sundari, T 2016, ‘Perubahan karakter agronomi aksesi plasma nutfah kedelai di lingkungan ternaungi’, Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy), vol. 39, no. 1.

Tan, ZG & Qian, YL 2003, ‘Light intensity affects gibberellic acid content in Kentucky bluegrass’, HortScience, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 113–116.

Tulung, SMT & Demmassabu, S 2011, ‘Pertumbuhan dan hasil paprika (Capsicum annuum var-grossum) pada beberapa jenis naungan’, Eugenia, vol. 17, no. 2.

Tuzel, Y, Oztekin, GB & Meric, M 2009, ‘Influence of shading screens on microclimate, growth and productivity of tomato’, Acta Horticulturae, vol. 807, pp. 97–102.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v29n1.2019.p22-32

Data citation

Baharuddin, R, Chozin, MA & Syukur, M 2014, ‘Toleransi 20 genotipe tanaman tomat terhadap naungan’, Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy), vol. 42, no. 2. Bahrun, A 2012, ‘Kajian ekofisiologi tanaman semusim penyusun agroforestri pada beberapa zona agroklimat di DAS Ciliwung Hulu’, Disertasi, Program Pascasarjana, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor. Cabuslay, GS, Vergara, BS & Quintana, RU 1991, ‘Low light stress: Mechanism of tolerance and screening method’, Philippine Journal of Crop Science (Philippines) vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 39-42. Djukri & Purwoko, BS 2003, ‘Pengaruh naungan paranet terhadap sifat toleransi tanaman talas (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott)’, Ilmu Pertanian, vol. 2, no. 10, pp. 17–25. El-Abd, MTG, Shanan, SA, Abou-Hadid, AF & Saleh, MM 1994, ‘Effect of different shading densities on growth and yield of tomato and cucumber’, Egypt. J. Hort, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 64–69. Gaspersz, V 1995, ‘Teknik analisis dalam penelitian percobaan’, Tarsito, Bandung, vol. 718. Hartoyo, APP, Wijayanto, N & Budi, SWR 2014, ‘Respon fisisologi dan produksi kedelai (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) toleran naungan berbasiskan agroforestri sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria (L.) Nielsen)’, J. Silvikultur Tropika, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 84–90. Heliyanto, B 1996, ‘Kriteria seleksi pada Tozza-Yute’, Zuriat, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 46–50. Khattak, AM, Salam, A & Nawab, K 2007, ‘Response of exotic tomato lines to different light intensities’, Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, vol. 23, no. 4, p. 927. Kisman, Khumaida, N, Trikoesoemaningtyas, Sobir & Sopandie, D 2007, ‘Karakter morfo-fisiologi daun, penciri adaptasi kedelai terhadap intensitas cahaya rendah’, Bul. Agron, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 96–102. Lange, T 1998, ‘Molecular biology of gibberellin synthesis’, Planta, vol. 204, no. 4, pp. 409–419. Logan, BA, Demmig-Adams, B & Adams, WW 1999, ‘Acclimation of photosynthesis to the environment’, in Concepts in Photobiology, Springer, pp. 477–512. Lorenzo, P, Sánchez-Guerrero, MC, Medrano, E, Garc\’\ia, ML, Caparrós, I & Giménez, M 2003, ‘External greenhouse mobile shading: effect on microclimate, water use efficiency and yield of a tomato crop grown under different salinity levels of the nutrient solution’, in International Symposium on Managing Greenhouse Crops in Saline Environment 609, pp. 181–186. Manurung, GES, Roshetko, JM, Budidarsono, S & Kurniawan, I 2008, ‘Dudukuhan tree farming systems in West Java: how to mobilize self-strengthening of community-based forest management?’, in Smallholder Tree Growing for Rural Development and Environmental Services, Springer, pp. 99–116. Muhuria, L, Tyas, KN, Khumaida, N, Sopandie, D & others 2006, ‘Adaptasi tanaman kedelai terhadap intensitas cahaya rendah: karakter daun untuk efisiensi penangkapan cahaya’, Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy), vol. 34, no. 3. Pertiwi, HI, Soverda, N, E 2012, ‘Pengaruh naungan terhadap kerapatan stomata dan trikoma daun serta pertumbuhan dan hasil dua varietas tanaman kedelai (Glycine max (L) Merril)’, J. Agronomi, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 197–207. Pierik, R, Cuppens, MLC, Voesenek, LACJ & Visser, EJW 2004, ‘Interactions between ethylene and gibberellins in phytochrome-mediated shade avoidance responses in tobacco’, Plant Physiology, vol. 136, no. 2, pp. 2928–2936. Pranoto, H 2012, ‘Kajian agroekologi sistem agroforestry di Daerah Aliran Sungai Cianjur’, Disertasi). Program Studi Agronomi dan Hortikultura, Sekolah Pascasarjana Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor. Sasmita, P, Purwoko, BS, Sujiprihati, S, Hanarida, I, Dewi, IS & Chozin, MA 2006, ‘Evaluasi pertumbuhan dan produksi padi gogo haploid ganda toleran naungan dalam sistem tumpang sari’, Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy), vol. 34, no. 2. Shehata, S, Elsagheer, AA, El-Helaly, MA, Saleh, SA & Abdallah, AM 2013, ‘Shading effect on vegetative and fruit characters of tomato plant’, Journal of Applied Sciences Research, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 1434–1437. Sopandie, D, Chozin, MA, Sastrosumarjo, S, Juhaeti, T& S 2003a, ‘Toleransi padi gogo terhadap naungan’, Hayati, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 71–75. Sopandie, D, Trikoesoemaningtyas, HT, Jufri, A & Takano, T 2003b, ‘Adaptability of soybean to shade stress: identification of morphological responses. Di dalam:[tidak disebutkan], editor’, in The 2nd Seminar toward Harmonization between Development and Environmental Conservation in Biological Production, pp. 15–16. Soverda, N 2004, ‘Adaptasi tanaman padi gogo terhadap naungan’, Jurnal Agronomi, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 105–110. Soverda, N, Evita, E & Gusniwati, G 2012, ‘Uji adaptasi dan toleransi beberapa varietas tanaman kedelai pada naungan buatan’, Universitas Jambi, pp. 1–16. Sulistyowati, D, Chozin, MA, Syukur, M, Melati, M & Guntoro, D 2016a, ‘Karakter genotipe tomat senang naungan pada intensitas cahaya rendah’, Jurnal Hortikultura, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 181–188. Sulistyowati, D, Chozin, MA, Syukur, M, Melati, M & Guntoro, D 2016b, ‘Selection of shade-tolerant tomato genotypes.’, Journal of Applied Horticulture, vol. 18, no. 2. Susanto, GWA & Sundari, T 2016, ‘Perubahan karakter agronomi aksesi plasma nutfah kedelai di lingkungan ternaungi’, Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Agronomy), vol. 39, no. 1. Tan, ZG & Qian, YL 2003, ‘Light intensity affects gibberellic acid content in Kentucky bluegrass’, HortScience, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 113–116. Tulung, SMT & Demmassabu, S 2011, ‘Pertumbuhan dan hasil paprika (Capsicum annuum var-grossum) pada beberapa jenis naungan’, Eugenia, vol. 17, no. 2. Tuzel, Y, Oztekin, GB & Meric, M 2009, ‘Influence of shading screens on microclimate, growth and productivity of tomato’, Acta Horticulturae, vol. 807, pp. 97–102. Zaman, MZ 2003, ‘Respon pertumbuhan dan hasil beberapa varietas kedelai (Glycine max (L) Merrill) terhadap intensitas penaungan’, Skripsi. Fakultas Pertanian. Universitas Brawijaya. Malang.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.
';



Copyright (c) 2019 Indonesian Center for Horticulture Research and Development

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 


Jurnal Hortikultura (J.Hort) has been indexed :

         

===================================================================================================================

 Creative Commons License
Junal Hortikultura is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at http://ejurnal.litbang.pertanian.go.id/index.php/jhort
Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at www.litbang.pertanian.go.id.

Indonesian Center for Horticulture Research and Development

Jl. Tentara Pelajar No. 3C Kampus Penelitian Pertanian Cimanggu Bogor 16124, Indonesia
Telp.  +62 251-8372096, 7565366, (Ext. 324) (Hunting System)
Faks.  +62 251-8387651, 8575664, 8372096
E-mail: redaksi.jhorti@gmail.com

ISSN: 0853-7097
E-ISSN: 2502-5120

 

free web stats

View My Stats