Produksi Benih Kentang G0 Pada Berbagai Volume dan Frekuensi Fertigasi dengan Sistem Irigasi Tetes (Production of G0 Potato Seed on Many Fertigation Volumes and Frequencies on Drip Irrigation)

Meksy Dianawati, Hilda Farida, Sri Muhartini

Abstract


Kentang merupakan sayuran yang memiliki prospek untuk mendukung program diversifikasi pangan. Akan tetapi saat ini produksi di dalam negeri masih rendah akibat penggunaan benih yang kurang bermutu. Sistem irigasi tetes berpeluang untuk diterapkan pada produksi benih kentang G0. Penelitian  bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh frekuensi dan volume fertigasi terhadap produksi benih G0 kentang pada sistem irigasi tetes. Penelitian  dilaksanakan sejak bulan Mei sampai dengan September 2016 di Rumah Kassa Desa Cikahuripan, Lembang, Bandung Barat, Jawa Barat dengan ketinggian 1.200 m dpl. Percobaan menggunakan rancangan petak terpisah (split plot design) dengan rancangan acak kelompok lengkap dan tiga ulangan. Sebagai petak utama adalah frekuensi fertigasi sebanyak 3, 5, dan 7 kali. Sebagai anak petak adalah volume fertigasi (ml) setiap aplikasi, yaitu 100, 200, 300, dan 400. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan tidak terjadi interaksi antara perlakuan frekuensi dan volume fertigasi terhadap semua peubah pengamatan. Frekuensi fertigasi terbaik terhadap bobot ubi per tanaman umur 100 HST adalah lima kali, yaitu jam 7, 10, 12, 14, dan 16. Volume fertigasi terbaik terhadap jumlah ubi ukuran besar umur 100 HST adalah 300 ml per aplikasi per polibag. Volume dan frekuensi fertigasi terbaik ini diharapkan tidak saja meningkatkan produksi benih, tetapi juga keuntungan usahatani yang diperoleh. Perlu dilakukan penelitian lebih lanjut untuk menginduksi pengumbian dengan mengalihkan ukuran ubi menjadi peningkatan jumlah ubi sebagai tujuan produksi benih G0.

Keywords

Solanum tuberosum L.; Irigasi tetes; Fertigasi; Frekuensi; Volume

Abstract

Potato is one of vegetables that can be used as an alternative to support food diversification programs. But the potato production domestically is still low because of low quality seed. One of the potato seed technologies that can be developed is arragement of fertigation volumes and frequencies on drip fertigation. The objective of this research was to determine the best fertigation volume and frequency in G0 potato seed production in drip irrigation. This research was conducted from May to September 2016 at Screen House Cikahuripan Village, Lembang, Bandung on 1,200 m asl. The treatments were arranged in split plot design with randomized complete block design and three replications. The main plot was fertigation frequency which was consisted of three levels; 3, 5, and 7 times per day. The subplot was fertigation volume which was consisted of four levels; 100, 200, 300, and 400 ml per aplication. The result showed there was no interaction between fertigation frequency and volume on all observation. The best fertigation frequency on tuber weight per plant at 100 day after planting was five  times, i.e. 7, 10, 12, 14, and 16 o’clock. The best fertigation volume on number of big tuber at 100 day after planting was 300 ml per application. The best fertigation volume and frequency will increase not only seed production, but also profit of bussiness. Next research will be done to induction tuberization by transfering measurement of tuber to increase the amount of tuber as goal of production of G0 potato seed.

 


Keywords


Solanum tuberosum L.; Drip irrigation; Fertigation; Frequency; Volume

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abdalla, M, El-Dein, M, Badawy, AS & Hassaan, A 2016, ‘Effect of plastic mulch and drought periods on growth and yield of potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.). I- vegetative growth’, Assiut J. Agric. Sci., vol. 47, no. 6–2, pp. 615–632.

Abubaker, BMA, Shuang-En, Y, Guang-Cheng, S, Alhadi, M & Elsiddig, A 2014, ‘Effect of irrigation levels on the growth, yield and quality of potato’, Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science Agricultural Academy, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 303–309.

Andriyanto, F, Setiawan, B & Riana, FD 2013, ‘Dampak impor kentang terhadap pasar kentang di Indonesia’, Habitat, vol. XXIV, no. 1, pp. 59–70.

Badr, MA, Hussein, SDA & El-Tohamy, WA 2015, ‘Methods of phosphorus application and fertigation rate on eggplant yield and phosphorus use efficiency in sandy soil’, Middle East Journal of Applied Sciences, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 1055–1060.

Badr, MA, Hussein, SDA, El-Tohamy, WA & Gruda, N 2010, ‘Efficiency of subsurface drip irrigation for potato production under different dry stress conditions’, Gesunde Pflanzen, vol. 62, pp. 63–70.

Bakeer, G A, El-Ebadi, FG, El-Saidi, MT & Abdelghany, ARE 2009, ‘Effect of pulse drip irrigation on yield and water use efficiency of potato crop under organic agriculture in sandy soils’, Misr J. Ag. Eng, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 736–765.

Dianawati, M 2013, ‘Produksi benih umbi mini kentang (Solanum tuberosum L.) secara aeroponik melalui induksi pengumbian’, Disertasi, Sekolah Pasca Sarjana, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor.

Dianawati, M, Ilyas, S, Wattimena, G & Susila, A 2013, ‘Produksi umbi mini kentang secara aeroponik melalui penentuan dosis optimum pupuk daun Nitrogen’, J. Hort, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 47–55.

Dianawati, M & Wattimena, GA 2014, ‘Potensi teknologi aeroponik dalam mendukung swasembada benih kentang nasional’, in Prosiding Seminar Nasional Perhorti, Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, pp. 260–266.

Farran, I & Mingo-Castel, AM 2006, ‘Potato minituber production using aeroponics: Effect of plant density and harvesting intervals’, American Journal of Potato Research, vol. 83, no. 1, pp. 47–53.

Feleafel, MN, Mirdad, ZM & Hassan, AS 2014, ‘Effect of NPK fertigation rate and starter fertilizer on the growth and yield of Cucumber grown in greenhouse’, Journal of Agricultural Science, vol. 6, no. 9, pp. 81–92.

Feng, Z, Wan, S, Kang, Y & Liu, S 2017, ‘Drip fertigation regime for potato on sandy soil’, Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 476–484.

Harris, P 1978, The potato crop : The scientific basis for improvement, Chapman and Hall, New York.

Jayakumar, M, Surendran, U & Manickasundaram, P 2015, ‘Drip fertigation program on growth, crop productivity, water, and fertilizer-use efficiency of Bt cotton in semi-arid Tropical Region of India’, Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, vol. 46, pp. 293–304, accessed from .

Kusandriani, Y & Sumarna, A 1993, ‘Respon varietas cabai pada beberapa tingkat kelembaban tanah’, Buletin Penelitian Hortikultura, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 1–8.

Lahlou, O & Ledent, JF 2005, ‘Root mass and depth, stolons and roots formed on stolons in four cultivars of potato under water stress’, European Journal of Agronomy, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 159–173.

Mackerron, DKL & Jefferies, RA 1986, ‘The influence of soil-water restrictions on tuber numbers’, Potato Research, vol. 29, pp. 299–312.

Meshkat, M, Warner, RC & Workman, SR 2000, ‘Evaporation reduction potential in an undisturbed soil irrigated with surface drip and sand tube irrigation’, Trans. ASAE, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 79–86.

Mokh, F El, Nagaz, K, Masmoudi, MM & Mechlia, N Ben 2015, ‘Yield and water productivity of drip-irrigated potato under different nitrogen levels and irrigation regime with saline water in Arid Tunisia’, American Journal of Plant Sciences, vol. 6, pp. 501–510, accessed from .

Nuryati, L & Waryanto, B 2016, Statistik pertanian 2016, Pusat Data dan Sistem Informasi Pertanian, Kementan, Jakarta.

O’Brien, PJ, Allen, EJ & Firman, DM 1998, ‘A review of some studies into tuber initiation in potato (Solanum tuberosum) crops’, Journal of Agricultural Science, vol. 130, pp. 251–270.

Plessis, H du, Steyn, M, Fourie, P, Roos, T, Jongnloed, M & Osler, G 2016, The effect of row spacing on drip irrigated potatoes in South Africa, Final report. Potatoes South Afrika.

Sari, AW 2007, ‘Respon tanaman kentang (Solanum tuberosum L.) terhadap irigasi tetes dengan volume dan waktu aplikasi yang berbeda’, Skripsi, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang, Malang.

Setiawan, B 2008, ‘Respon tanaman kentang (Solanum tuberosum L.) terhadap aplikasi irigasi tetes dengan interval dan waktu pemberian air yang berbeda’, Skripsi, Fakultas Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor.

Sumarni, E, Suhardiyanto, H, Seminar, KB & Saptomo, K 2013, ‘Pendinginan zona perakaran (root zone cooling) pada produksi benih kentang menggunakan sistem aeroponik’, J. Agron. Indonesia, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 154–159.

Susila, AD 2006, Fertigasi pada budidaya tanaman sayuran di dalam greenhouse, Direktorat Jenderal Hortikultura, Jakarta, pp. 1–14.

Ughade, SR, Tumbare, AD & Surve, US 2016, ‘Response of tomato to different fertigation levels and schedules under polyhouse.’, International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 76–80, accessed from .

Wang, FX, Kang, Y & Liu, SP 2006, ‘Effects of drip irrigation frequency on soil wetting pattern and potato growth in North China Plain’, Agricultural Water Management, vol. 79, pp. 248–264.

Xiukang, W, Zhanbin, L & Yingying, X 2014, ‘Effects of dripper discharge and irrigation frequency on growth and yield of Maize in Loess Plateau of Northwest China’, Pakistan Journal of Botany, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 1019–1025.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v29n1.2019.p53-60

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.

Comments on this article

View all comments
';



Copyright (c) 2019 Indonesian Center for Horticulture Research and Development

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

 


Jurnal Hortikultura (J.Hort) has been indexed :

         

===================================================================================================================

 Creative Commons License
Junal Hortikultura is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at http://ejurnal.litbang.pertanian.go.id/index.php/jhort
Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at www.litbang.pertanian.go.id.

Indonesian Center for Horticulture Research and Development

Jl. Tentara Pelajar No. 3C Kampus Penelitian Pertanian Cimanggu Bogor 16124, Indonesia
Telp.  +62 251-8372096, 7565366, (Ext. 324) (Hunting System)
Faks.  +62 251-8387651, 8575664, 8372096
E-mail: redaksi.jhorti@gmail.com

ISSN: 0853-7097
E-ISSN: 2502-5120

 

free web stats

View My Stats