Deteksi Penyakit Virus Pada Bawang Merah Asal Kabupaten Brebes dan Cirebon dan Daerah Pencarnya Menggunakan Teknik RT-PCR (Detection of Viral Diseases on Shallot from Brebes and Cirebon Districts and their Spread Using the RT-PCR Techniques)

Neni Gunaeni, Asih K Karyadi, Witono Adiyoga

Abstract


Bawang merah (Allium cepa var. ascalonicum) merupakan salah satu komoditas penting sayuran. Salah satu masalah yang dihadapi dalam budidaya bawang merah adalah adanya penyakit yang disebabkan oleh virus yang dapat menurunkan kualitas dan kuantitas hasil. Penelitian bertujuan mengetahui kelompok virus yang menginfeksi bawang merah dan daerah pencarnya di Kabupaten Brebes dan Cirebon. Kegiatan dilakukan dengan pengambilan sampel tanaman pada bulan September 2013 (musim kemarau) dan April 2014 (musim hujan). Identifikasi virus dilakukan di Laboratorium Virologi Balai Penelitian Tanaman Sayuran menggunakan teknik RT-PCR. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa: (1) tingginya insiden gejala virus bergantung pada pola tanam, penggunaan varietas, umur tanaman, dan kondisi lingkungan di sekitar tanaman, (2) umumnya petani di Kabupaten Brebes dan Cirebon menanam bawang merah varietas Bima Curut, (3) daerah pencar kelompok Potyvirus, Allexivirus, dan Carlavirus cukup luas di Kabupaten Brebes dan Cirebon, (4) terdeteksi dari kelompok sampel Kabupaten Brebes Potyvirus 92,30%, Allexivirus 92,50%, dan Carlavirus 99%, dan (5) terdeteksi dari kelompok sampel asal Kabupaten Cirebon Potyvirus 96,43%, Allexivirus 96,15%, dan Carlavirus 93%. Implikasi dari infeksi ketiga kelompok virus tersebut pada tanaman bawang merah dapat menurunkan produksi 21,57–54,90%.

Keywords

Allium cepa var. ascalonicum; Deteksi; Potyvirus; Allexivirus; Carlavirus

Abstract

Shallot (Allium cepa var. ascalonicum) is one of the important vegetable commodity. The problems encountered in the cultivation of shallot is the disease caused by a virus which can reduce the quality and yield quantity. This study aimed to determine the group of viruses that infect shallot and geographycal distribution in Brebes and Cirebon Districts. The activities carried out by plant sampling in September 2013 (dry season) and April 2014 (rainy season). Identification of virus carried in the Virology Laboratory of Indonesian Vegetables Research Institute to perform testing using RT-PCR. The results showed that: (1) the high incidence of viral symptoms depend on cropping patterns, use of improved varieties, plant age, environmental conditions around the plant, (2) generally famers in Brebes and Cirebon Districts planted Bima Curut varieties, (3) geographycal distribution Potyvirus group, Allexivirus, and Carlavirus quite extensive in Brebes and Cirebon regions, (4) detected viruses from samples of Brebes District : Potyvirus group 92.30%, Allexivirus 92.50%, and Carlavirus 99%, and (5) detected viruses from samples of Cirebon District : Potyvirus group 96.43%, Allexivirus 96.15%, and Carlavirus 93%. The implications of the infection of the above three groups of viruses on the plant can decrease the production of shallots 21.57–51.90%.


Keywords


Allium cepa var. ascalonicum; Detection; Potyvirus; Allexivirus; Carlavirus

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v28n2.2018.p229-238

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