Uji Adaptasi Klon-Klon Kentang Transgenik Tahan Hawar Daun Pada Agroekosistem Jawa Barat dan Jawa Tengah [Adaptation Test of Transgenic Potato Resistance to Late Blight Under Agro Ecosystem of West and Central Java]

nFN Kusmana, Alberta Dinar Ambarwati

Abstract


Uji adaptasi merupakan salah satu syarat utama untuk pendaftaran varietas tanaman hortikultura. Salah satu masalah utama pada produksi tanaman kentang adalah adanya serangan penyakit hawar daun yang disebabkan oleh cendawan Phytophthora infestans. Melalui usaha perakitan varietas tanaman telah dihasilkan beberapa calon varietas kentang tahan terhadap penyakit hawar daun. Tanaman kentang tahan hawar daun dihasilkan melalui persilangan antara varietas kentang Granola dengan kentang transgenik Katahdin SP951 serta varietas Atlantic dengan Katahdin SP951. Uji adaptasi dilakukan di Lapangan Uji Terbatas sentra produksi kentang di Jawa Barat (Kab. Bandung dan Kab. Garut) dan di Jawa Tengah (Kab. Banjarnegara). Waktu pengujian mulai bulan Oktober 2013 sampai dengan Februari 2014. Penelitian disusun dengan menggunakan rancangan kelompok lengkap teracak (RKLT) dengan tiga ulangan. Untuk menguji stabilitas hasil menggunakan perangkat software komputer MSTATC. Untuk uji resistensi menggunakan isolat P. infestans dari masing-masing lokasi uji. Inokulasi dilakukan di rumah kaca pada saat tanaman berumur 30 hari setelah tanam dilakukan sebanyak lima kali dengan interval waktu 4 hari, yaitu pada umur 30, 34, 38, 42, dan 46 hari. Hasil pengujian didapatkan genotipe yang stabil, yaitu Klon 20, 27, 62, dan 65, serta varietas pembanding Atlantic, Granola, Katahdin, dan Katahdin SP 951. Klon 66 dan 69 merupakan klon yang tidak stabil. Klon 27, 62, 65, 66, dan 69 merupakan klon yang resisten terhadap serangan hawar daun. Klon 20 memiliki ketahanan yang moderat resisten terhadap serangan hawar daun sementara Granola dan Atlantic merupakan genotipe yang peka terhadap hawar daun. Hasil penelitian dapat dijadikan sebagai rekomendasi untuk pengusulan pendaftaran calon varietas kentang yang memiliki adaptasi baik di Jawa Barat dan Jawa Tengah serta tahan terhadap penyakit hawar daun.

Keywords

Solanum tuberosum L; Adaptasi; Resistensi; Hawar daun

Abstract

Adaptation test is one of the main requirements for variety registration. One of major problem of potato production is potato late blight disease caused by P. infestans. Through the breeding program has produced several candidates potato varieties resistance to late blight. Late blight resistant potato was obtained through crosses between Indonesian local potato variety of Granola and Atlantic with transgenic variety of Katahdin SP951. Adaptation test was conducted at confined field trials in potato production area in West Java (District of Bandung and Garut) and Central Java (Banjarnegara). The experiment was conducted from October 2013 to February 2014. The experimental design was Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The software of MSTATC was used for testing the stability of genotypes. To test of resistance to P.infestans, it was used P. infestans isolates that collected from each test site. Inoculation was conducted in a greenhouse at the plant was 30 days old after planting and performed five times inoculation with intervals of 4 days on the age (30, 34, 38, 42, and 46 days). The result showed that the stable genotypes were obtained from clone 20, 27, 62, and 65, as well as the varieties Atlantic, Granola, Katahdin, and Katahdin SP951. Whereas, clone 66 and 69, were unstable clone. Genotypes resistance to late blight were clone 27, 62, 65, 66, 69 and Katahdin SP951. Clone 20 has a moderate resistant to late blight, while Granola and Atlantic are genotypes that are susceptable to late blight. The results of the study can be used as a recommendation for the nomination of candidates potato varieties that have good adaptation in West Java and Central Java as well as resistant to late blight.


Keywords


Solanum tuberosum L.; Adaptation; Resistance; Late blight

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v28n2.2018.p175-182

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