Pengaruh Asam Salisilat dan K2HPO4 Pada Ketahanan Tanaman Kentang Terhadap Penyakit Busuk Daun di Musim Penghujan (The Effect of Salicylic Acid and K2HPO4 on the Resistance of Potato Plant to Late Blight in Rainy Season)

Rasiska Tarigan, Susilawati Barus, nFN Kuswandi

Abstract


Kentang merupakan tanaman pangan bernilai ekonomi tinggi yang rentan terhadap serangan busuk daun (Phytophthora infestans) pada musim penghujan. Penggunaan pestisida sintetik hasilnya belum memuaskan sehingga perlu dilakukan induksi ketahanan terhadap serangan penyakit. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui pengaruh  pemberian asam salisilat dan K2HPO4 dalam meningkatkan ketahanan tanaman kentang pada musim penghujan terhadap penyakit busuk daun. Penelitian dilakukan di Kebun Percobaan Berastagi pada ketinggian tempat 1.340 m dpl. pada bulan September sampai dengan Desember 2015. Tata letak percobaan disusun berdasarkan rancangan acak kelompok dua faktor dengan tiga ulangan dan 18 kombinasi perlakuan. Faktor pertama adalah dosis asam salisilat  (a0 = 0, a1 = 0,1g/L, a2 = 0,2 g/L, a3 = 0,3 g/L, a4 = 0,4 g/L, dan a5 = 0,2 g/L propineb). Faktor kedua adalah dosis K­2HPO4 (k0  =  kontrol, k1 = 0,1 g/L, k2 = 0,2 g/L). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kombinasi perlakuan 0,1 g/L asam salisilat dan  0,1 g/L K2HPO4 merupakan perlakuan terbaik menurunkan intensitas penyakit P. infestans dan kerusakan umbi kentang. Intensitas penyakit sampai 9 minggu setelah aplikasi hanya 7,46%, sedangkan kerusakan umbi hanya sebesar 0,35%. Jumlah umbi dan persentase kelas umbi per tanaman hanya dipengaruhi oleh K2HPO4, sedangkan bobot umbi tidak dipengaruhi kedua perlakuan. 

Keywords

Kentang; Asam salisilat; K­2HPO4; Ketahanan; Musim penghujan

Abstract

Potatoes are high economic value crops that are vulnerable to the attack of late blight (Phytophthora infestans) in the rainy season. The use of synthetic pesticides has not been satisfactory, so that should be induced for the disease resistance. The objective of the research was to determine the giving effect of salicylic acid and K2HPO4 in improving the resilience of the potato crop in the rainy season to late blight. The study was conducted at Berastagi Experimental Garden in altitude 1,340 meters above sea level, from September to December 2015. The layout of the trial is based on two factor randomized complete block design with three replications and 18 combination treatments. The first factor is the dose of salicylic acid (A0 = 0, A1 = 0,1g/L, A2 = 0,2 g/L, A3 = 0,3 g/L, A4 = 0,4 g/L and A5 = 0,2 g/L propineb), the second factor is the dose K 2HPO4 (K0 = control, K1 = 0.1 g/L, K2 = 0.2 g / L). The results showed that the combination treatment of 0.1 g/L of salicylic acid and 0,1 g/L K2HPO4 is the best treatment because it can reduce the intensity of the Phytophthora infestans disease and potato tuber damage. The disease intensity up to 9 weeks after application only 7.46%, while the tuber damage only 0.35%. The number and percentage of class tubers per plant only affected by K2HPO4, while the tuber weight was not influenced both treatments.


Keywords


Potato; Salicylic acid; K2HPO4; Resistance; Rainy

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v28n2.2018.p209-218

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