Studi Kualitas Regeneran Phalaenopsis Hasil Kultur In Vitro dari Eksplan Tangkai Infloresen, Tunas Pucuk, dan Empulur (The Quality Study of Phalaenopsis Regenerants from In Vitro Propagation of Inflorescence, Shoot Tip, and Pith Explants)

Dewi Pramanik, Herni Shintiavira, Budi Winarto

Abstract


Anggrek Phalaenopsis memiliki nilai komersial yang tinggi, karena keindahannya dapat dinikmati sepanjang tahun. Hal tersebut berdampak pada kebutuhan benih tanaman yang semakin meningkat. Salah satu cara penyediaan benih secara massal adalah melalui perbanyakan klonal secara in vitro sehingga perlu dilakukan studi kualitas regeneran hasil perbanyakan klonal untuk menjamin ketersediaan benih dengan kualitas baik. Penelitian bertujuan menguji kualitas regeneran yang dihasilkan dari perbanyakan klonal secara in vitro beberapa varietas Phalaenopsis dengan menggunakan eksplan yang berbeda. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Kultur Jaringan, Kebun Percobaan Segunung, Balai Penelitian Tanaman Hias (Balithi) sejak bulan Januari 2014 hingga Mei 2015. Penelitian menggunakan dua faktor, yaitu varietas (Ayu Lestari, Ayu Pratiwi, dan Karindra) dan jenis eksplan (tangkai infloresen, tunas pucuk, dan empulur). Percobaan disusun menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok pola faktorial dan setiap perlakuan diulang tiga kali. Hasil penelitian menunjukan tidak terjadi interaksi yang nyata antara faktor jenis eksplan dan varietas yang diujikan pada semua tahap percobaan. Respon terbaik diperoleh pada eksplan empulur dengan 42,85% eksplan berhasil membentuk kalus pada minggu ke-8 dan hampir 100% kalus tersebut dapat beregenerasi menjadi tunas pada minggu ke-24 dengan tingkat multiplikasi tunas 1,87 kali. Pada minggu ke-32 terbentuk rata-rata 3,13 daun per planlet dengan 2,47 cm panjang daun, 1,36 cm lebar daun, 1,52 akar per planlet, dan panjang akar per planlet mencapai 1,26 cm. Kerapatan stomata memiliki korelasi negatif dengan tingkat abnormalitas planlet. Planlet dengan kerapatan stomata tertinggi dan abnormalitas yang rendah diperoleh pada var. Karindra dan planlet yang berasal dari eksplan empulur dan tunas pucuk. Setelah 8 minggu tahap aklimatisasi, tingkat keberhasilan hidup tertinggi (92%) diperoleh pada tunas yang berasal dari eksplan empulur. Penelitian membuktikan bahwa perbedaan varietas tidak memiliki pengaruh nyata pada tingkat abnormalitas regeneran dan dari eksplan empulur diperoleh jumlah regeneran tertinggi dengan kualitas baik (tingkat abnormalitas rendah).

Keywords

Kultur jaringan; Kualitas regeneran; Phalaenopsis; Jenis eksplant

Abstract

Phalaenopsis orchids have a high commercial value, because of its beauty and it can be enjoyed throughout the year. This condition gives the impact on the increasing demand of the seeds. One of the ways of providing mass seeds is through in vitro clonal propagation. However, it is necessary to study the quality of regenerants of clonal propagation products to ensure the availability of qualified seeds. The aimed of this study was to test the quality of regenerants obtained from in vitro clonal propagation of Phalaenopsis using inflorescence stalk, shoot tips, and pith explants. This research was conducted at Tissue Culture Laboratory, Segunung Experimental Station, Indonesian Ornamental Crops Research Institute (IOCRI) from January 2014 to May 2015. The study used two treatments, varieties (Ayu Lestari, Ayu Pratiwi, and Karindra) and type of explant (inflorescence stalk, shoot tips, and pith). Experiments were prepared using a randomized complete block design with two factors and each treatment was replicated three times. The results showed there were no significant interaction between types of explants and varieties tested in all experiment stages. The best response was obtained using pith explants with 42.85% callus formation in the week eighth and nearly 100% callus can regenerate into shoots at week 24th with the rate of shoot multiplication up to 1.87 times. At week 32th the cultures formed planlets with an average number of leaves of 3.13 and an average size of 2.47 cm x 1.36 cm (length x width) and an average number of roots of 1.52 with average length reached 1.26 cm. Stomatal density has negative correlation with plantlet abnormality rate. Plantlets with the highest stomatal density and low abnormality were obtained in var. Karindra and plantlet derived from explant pith and shoot buds. After 8 weeks of acclimatization stage, the highest survival rate (92%) was obtained on the shoot originating from pith explant. This study proved that varietal differences did not have a significant effect on regenerant abnormalities, and the highest number of regenerant with good quality (low abnormality rate) was obtained from pith explant.


Keywords


Tissue culture; Quality of regenerants; Phalaenopsis; Type of explants

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v28n1.2018.p13-24

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