PenerapanTeknologi Input Luar Rendah Pada Budidaya Cabai Merah untuk Mengurangi Penggunaan Pupuk dan Pestisida Sintetik (Implementation of Low External Input Technology for Chili Pepper Cultivation to Reduce Fertilizer and Synthetic Pesticide)

Wiwin Setiawati, Agus Muharam, Agus Susanto, Evita Boes, Abdi Hudayya

Abstract


Penggunaan input produksi yang tinggi seperti pupuk dan pestisida pada budidaya cabai merah merupakan ancaman yang serius terhadap kesehatan dan lingkungan. Salah satu teknologi alternatif yang semakin sering dijajagi penerapannya adalah teknologi low external input technology (LEIT). Kelebihan teknologi LEIT adalah menggunakan bahan agro kimia secara benar, tepat waktu, dosis dan cara sehingga tidak menimbulkan pencemaran lingkungan, baik pencemaran tanah, air dan udara, produksi tetap tinggi, secara ekonomi menguntungkan dan aman untuk dikonsumsi. Beberapa teknologi yang dapat digunakan dalam teknologi LEIT di antaranya penggunaan kompos untuk mengurangi pupuk buatan, sistem polikultur, dan penutup tanah dengan kacang - kacangan. Tujuan penelitian adalah menghasilkan LEIT pada budidaya cabai merah dengan memanfaatkan sumber daya hayati (SDH) domestik yang dapat mengurangi kebutuhan pupuk dan pestisida sintetik serta ramah lingkungan mulai dari pengendalian input, pengendalian proses dan quality control. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Balai Penelitian Tanaman Sayuran, Lembang dari bulan Maret sampai November 2014. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah rancangan acak kelompok dengan sembilan perlakuan dan tiga ulangan. Perlakuan yang diuji adalah kombinasi dari varietas, bahan organik dan NPK, sistem tanam dan pengendalian OPT serta teknologi konvensional sebagai pembanding. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa penerapan LEIT (30 ton kompos PKSTT, NPK 625 kg/ha, penggunaan ATECU berdasarkan ambang pengendalian, biopestisida BPP pegunungan pada saat berbunga dan tumpangsari antara cabai merah dan buncis tegak) memberikan hasil terbaik untuk budidaya cabai merah ramah lingkungan. Penerapan teknologi LEIT tersebut dapat menekan penggunaan pupuk NPK sebesar 37,5%, penggunaan pestisida 50 – 60%, produksi tetap tinggi (9,49 ton/ha), meningkatkan pendapatan 27,71%, aman terhadap predator M. sexmaculatus dan ramah lingkungan.

Keywords

Capsicum annuum; LEIT; Ramah lingkungan

Abstract

Chili pepper cultivation reliance on synthetic-chemical fertilizers and pesticides is having serious impacts on health and the environment. Low external input technology (LEIT) was one of technology which recently can be applied. It does not mean the elimination of these materials. Yields are maintained through greater emphasis on cultural practices, IPM, and utilization of on-farm resources and management such as legume cover crops, cropping system and compost can supply the total nitrogen requirements, biopesticide to reduce the use of the chemical pesticide. These technology reduced environmental degradation, maintain agricultural productivity, promote economic viability in both the short and long term and maintain stable rural communities and quality of life. The objectives were to produce LEIT on the chili pepper cultivation that using biological resources which can reduce the need for domestic fertilizers and synthetic pesticides safe for consumption and environmentally friendly from the input control, control process, and quality control. The goal of this experiment was to support the implementation of product safety and increase biodiversity, especially in useful life (parasitoids and predators). The research conducted at Indonesian Vegetables Research Institute, Lembang from March to November 2014. Randomized block design consisting of nine treatments and three replications was used. Organic materials, compost, NPK doses, cropping systems and the use of insecticides were used as treatments. The results showed that application of LEIT such as the use of compost 30 ton/ha, NPK 625 kg/ha, application of ATECU insecticide based on control threshold, application of mountain biopesticide at flowering and intercropping between chili pepper and bean were the best treatments for environmentally friendly of chili pepper cultivation. This technology was able suppress the use of NPK fertilizer at 37.5%, the use of pesticides 50-60%, production remains high (9.49 ton/ha), increase demand (27.71%), safe for M. sexmaculatus predator, and environmentally friendly.


Keywords


Capsicum annuum; LEIT ; Environmentally friendly

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v28n1.2018.p%25p

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