Pengaruh Tanaman Aromatik Dalam Sistem Tanam Tumpangsari Dengan Cabai Merah Terhadap Serangan Trips dan Kutudaun (Effect of Aromatic Plants on Thrips and Aphid Infestation in Intercropping System with Hot Pepper)

Tonny Koestoni Moekasan

Abstract


Tanaman aromatik seperti seledri dan kemangi mengandung minyak esensial yang antara lain bersifat sebagai penolak hama. Oleh karena itu tanaman tersebut dapat digunakan sebagai salah satu cara pengendalian hama dengan cara ditumpangsarikan dengan tanaman utama. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui sejauh mana tanaman seledri dan kemangi yang ditumpangsarikan dengan cabai merah dalam menekan populasi hama trips dan kutudaun pada tanaman cabai merah. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Kebun Percobaan Margahayu (1.250 m dpl.), Balai Penelitian Tanaman Sayuran di Lembang, dari bulan Maret sampai Agustus 2016.  Penelitian disusun alam rancangan acak kelompok dengan pola petak terpisah. Petak utama ialah sistem tanam (A), yang terdiri atas: (a1) tumpangsari cabai-seledri, (a2) tumpangsari cabai-kemangi, dan (a3) cabai monokultur. Anak petak ialah penyemprotan insektisida (B), yang terdiri atas: (b1) disemprot insektisida 2x/minggu dan (b2) tidak disemprot insektisida. Setiap kombinasi perlakuan diulang sebanyak empat kali. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa: (1) dalam sistem tumpangsari dengan cabai, seledri dan kemangi mampu menekan populasi trips masing-masing sebesar 35,84% dan 34,76%, serta menekan populasi kutudaun masing-masing sebesar 44% dan 50,25%; (2) penggunaan seledri dan kemangi dibandingkan dengan penggunaan insektisida menunjukkan penekanan yang lebih baik terhadap trips dan kutudaun, sehingga penggunaan tanaman aromatik tersebut dalam sistem tumpangsari dengan cabai mampu menekan penggunaan insektisida hingga 100%; dan (3) penggunaan seledri dan kemangi dalam sistem tanam tumpangsari dengan cabai mampu meningkatkan hasil panen cabai masing-masing sebesar 61,89% dan 65,04%.

Keywords

Cabai (Capsicum annuum); Seledri (Apium graveolens); Kemangi (Ocimum basilicum); Tumpangsari; Hama

Abstract

Aromatic plants like celery and basil contain essential oils that able to repel the pests. Therefore, these aromatic plants can be used in intercropping system to control pests of the main crop. The aim of the research was to know how far celery and basil in intercropping with hot pepper in reducing thrips and aphid infestation on hot pepper. The activity was carried out in Margahayu Research Garden (1,250 m asl.), Indonesian Vegetable Research Institute at Lembang. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with split plot pattern and each combination treatment was replicated four times. The main plot was planting system (A): (a1) hot pepper intercropped with celery, (a2) hot pepper intercropped with basil, and (a3) hot pepper monoculture. The sub plot was insecticide spraying (B): (b1) spray with insecticide 2x/week and (b2) without insecticide spraying. Results showed that: (1) in intercropping system with hot pepper, celery and basil were able to reduce thrips population by 35.84% and 34.76% respectively, and were able to reduce aphid population by 44% and 50,25% respectively; (2) use of celery and basil compared with insecticide showed a better suppression on thrips and aphid population, so that the use of these aromatic plants was able to reduce insecticide spraying by 100%; and (3) use of celery and basil was able to increase the hot pepper yield by 61.89% and 65.04% respectively.


Keywords


Basil (Ocimum basilicum); Celery (Apium graveolens); Hot pepper (Capsicum annuum); Intercropping system; Pests

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v28n1.2018.p87-96

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