Optimasi Sistem Penanaman dan Teknik Pemangkasan Tunas Pada Dua Varietas Paprika (Capsicum annuum var. Grossum) [Optimation of Planting System and Shoot Pruning in Two Sweet Pepper (Capsicum annuum var. Grossum) Varieties]

Nirkadi Gunadi, Tonny Koestoni Moekasan, Laksminiwati Prabaningrum

Abstract


Hasil paprika sangat tergantung pada pengaturan sistem penanaman dan teknik pemangkasan tunas. Penelitian dengan tujuan untuk mengoptimasi sistem penanaman dan teknik pemangkasan tunas pada dua varietas paprika telah dilakukan di Kebun Percobaan Balai Penelitian Tanaman Sayuran, Lembang, Jawa Barat dari bulan Mei 2011 sampai Februari 2012. Tiga faktor perlakuan yang dicoba terdiri atas sistem penanaman (satu dan dua tanaman per polibag) sebagai petak utama, sistem pemangkasan tunas (pemangkasan per buku sisa dua daun dan sisa tiga daun) sebagai anak petak dan varietas (Inspiration dan Spider) sebagai anak-anak petak dicoba dengan menggunakan rancangan petak terpisah (split plot design) dengan tiga ulangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan sistem penanaman berpengaruh nyata terhadap hasil paprika. Rata-rata hasil total dan hasil kelas buah >200 g yang ditanam dengan sistem penanaman satu tanaman per polibag berturut-turut lebih tinggi 14,1% dan 17,0% daripada tanaman yang ditanam dengan sistem penanaman dua tanaman per polibag. Perlakuan sistem pemangkasan tunas hanya berpengaruh nyata terhadap hasil kelas buah >200 g dan sistem pemangkasan sisa tiga daun memberikan hasil kelas buah >200 g lebih tinggi daripada sistem pemangkasan sisa dua daun. Hasil total, hasil kelas buah >200 g dan kelas buah 100–200 g varietas Spider lebih tinggi dan berbeda nyata dibandingkan dengan varietas Inspiration. Hasil penelitian merekomendasikan bahwa tanaman paprika sebaiknya ditanam dengan sistem satu tanaman per polibag dan sistem pemangkasan sisa tiga daun. Bila buah paprika yang diinginkan relatif besar maka varietas Inspiration yang ditanam, sedangkan bila buah dengan ukuran sedang maka varietas Spider yang ditanam.

Keywords

Capsicum annuum var. Grossum; Hasil; Sistem penanaman; Sistem pemangkasan; Varietas 

Abstract

Yields of sweet peppers depend on planting system and shoot pruning system. A research with the aim to optimize planting system and shoot pruning system in two sweet pepper varieties has been carried out in the Experimental Field of the Indonesian Vegetable Research Institute in Lembang (1,250 m asl.), West Java from May 2011 until February 2012. Three treatment factors consisted of planting system (one plant and two plants planted per polybag), shoot pruning system (pruning with two leaves and three leaves remaining per node) and variety (Inspiration and Spider) were laid-out using split plot design with three replication. The results indicated that planting system treatment significantly affected the yields of sweet pepper. Average total yields and yields of fruit >200 g from plants using one plant per polybag were 14.1% and 17.0% higher than those of plants using two plants per polybag. The shoot pruning treatment significantly affected only on the yields of fruit >200 g and the shoot pruning system with three leaves remaining per node gave significantly higher yields of fruit >200 g compared to the shoot pruning system with two leaves remaining per node. The total yields, yields of fruit >200 g and yields of fruit 100–200 g of Spider were significantly higher than those of Inspiration with the average total yields of Spider 12.3% higher than Inspiration. The results suggest that sweet pepper should be planted using one plant per polybag and the shoot pruning with three leaves remaining per node. If desired the relatively big size fruit, Inspiration is recommended, however, if desired the medium-size fruit, Spider is recommended. 


Keywords


Capsicum annuum var. Grossum; Yield; Planting system, Pruning system; Variety

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v28n1.2018.p77-86

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