Pemanfaatan Teknologi Indigenous ATECU untuk Mengendalikan OPT Utama Pada Tanaman Cabai Merah serta Pengaruhnya Terhadap Predator Menochilus sexmaculatus

Wiwin Setiawati, Abdi Hudayya

Abstract


(The used of Indigenous ATECU Technology to Control Pest and Diseases on Chili Pepper and Safer to Predator Menochilus sexmaculatus)

Meningkatnya kesadaran konsumen terhadap keamanan pangan dan issue pelestarian lingkungan menjadikan budidaya ramah lingkungan menjadi salah satu pilihan yang tepat untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut. Budidaya ramah lingkungan tidak menimbulkan pencemaran serta tidak memerlukan input yang mahal seperti pupuk dan pestisida kimia sintetis. Kebutuhan bahan input tersebut dipenuhi dari bahan organik lokal (indigenous) yang tersedia di sekitar lahan pertanian (kearifan lokal) sehingga biaya produksi menjadi lebih murah. ATECU (akronim dari campuran Azadirachta indica, Tephrosia vogelli, dan urine sapi yang difermentasi selama 15 hari) merupakan salah satu teknologi indigenous yang efikasinya terhadap hama penting pada tanaman cabai sangat diperlukan. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengetahui efikasi teknologi indigenous ATECU (fermentasi mimba, kacang babi, dan urine sapi) terhadap OPT penting cabai merah yang dapat mengurangi penggunaan pestisida kimia >50% dan aman terhadap predator M. sexmaculatus. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Kebun Percobaan Balai Penelitian Tanaman Sayuran Lembang (1.250 m dpl.) dengan jenis tanah Andisol dari bulan Maret sampai dengan bulan November 2016. Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan adalah rancangan acak kelompok terdiri atas enam perlakuan dan diulang empat kali. Perlakuan yang diuji adalah ATECU 10 ml/l yang diaplikasikan secara rutin berdasarkan ambang kendali dan kombinasi dengan insektisida kimia Spinetoram (1,0 ml/l ), insektisida Spinoteram (1,0 ml/l ) yang diaplikasikan secara rutin dan berdasarkan ambang kendali serta kontrol. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa aplikasi teknologi indigenous ATECU 10 ml/l efektif mengendalikan OPT penting pada tanaman cabai merah seperti Thrips parvispinus dengan tingkat efikasi (53,56%), Polyphagotarsonemus latus (90,71%), Heliothis armigera (98,41%), Bractocera spp. (83,28%) dan penyakit yang diakibatkan oleh cendawan Colletotrichum acutatum dengan tingkat efikasi sebesar (70,18%). Selain itu aplikasi ATECU 10 ml/l dapat mengurangi penggunaan insektisida sebesar 40–50%, menghemat biaya penggunaan insektisida sebesar 45,38–95,36%, aman terhadap musuh alami (predator Menochilus sexmaculatus) serta menghasilkan hasil panen di atas 10 ton/ha. Penggunaan ATECU selain efektif untuk pengendalian OPT juga dapat meningkatkan produktivitas tanaman. Karena keefektifannya, sifat ramah lingkungan, dan relatif lebih ekonomis. ATECU dapat direkomendasikan sebagai pestisida potensial untuk pengendalian OPT dalam budidaya sayuran ramah lingkungan.

Keywords

Cabai merah; SDH indigenous; Azadirachta indica; Tephrosia vogelii; Urine sapi

Abstract

Increased consumer awareness of food safety and environmental conservation issues make environmentally friendly cultivation to be one of the right choices to overcome the problem. Eco-friendly agriculture does not cause pollution and does not require expensive inputs such as synthetic chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Some potential of Biological Control Agent (BCA) indigenous included bio-pesticide (ATECU) should be manipulated. Most of the potential BCA is underutilized among common farmers. The used of indigenous ATECU technology (neem, tephrosia and cow urine fermented) to control pest and diseases on chili pepper is needed. The research aimed to determine the efficacy indigenous material ATECU (neem + tephrosia + cow urine fermented) to control pest and diseases of chili pepper that can reduce the use of chemical pesticides > 50% and safe to predator M. sexmaculatus. The research was conducted in Margahayu Station from March to November 2016. Randomized block design consisting of 6 treatments was used in this experiment with four replications. The treatment being tested is the use of applications of ATECU 10 ml/l based on routinely, action threshold and combine with Spinetoram 1 ml/l, Spinoteram 1 ml/l insecticide applied routinely and based on control threshold and control. The results showed that ATECU 10 ml/l was effective for controlling important pests in chili pepper such as Thrips parvispinus with efficacy levels (53.56%), Polyphagotarsonemus latus (90.71%), Helicoverpa armigera (98.41%), Bractocera spp. (83.28%) and Colletotrichum acutatum disease with efficacy 70.18%; ATECU 10 ml/l can reduce pesticide use by 40–50%, save pesticide usage 45.38–95.36%, and safe to predator Menochilus sexmaculatus and highest yield of chili up to 10 ton/ha. From this experiment which was strongly gave on indication that ATECU fermented from neem, tephrosia plants and cow urine would be able to replace synthetic pesticides in controlling pest and diseases, and to reduce the quantity of synthetic pesticide application on environmentally friendly cultivation of chili.



Keywords


Chili peppers ; BCA indigenous; Azadirachta indica; Tephrosia vogelii; Cow urine

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v29n1.2019.p81-90

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