Isolasi, Identifikasi, dan Karakterisasi Jamur Entomopatogen dari Rizosfir Pertanaman Kubis

- Nuraida, Ahsol Hasyim

Abstract


Tujuan penelitian adalah mengidentifikasi dan mengkarakterisasi jamur entomopatogen dari rizosfir
pertanaman kubis. Percobaan ini dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Entomologi dan Penyakit Tumbuhan, Fakultas
Pertanian Universitas Andalas dan Laboratorium Entomologi, Balai Penelitian Tanaman Buah Tropika Solok dari
Maret sampai Agustus 2006. Pengujian sporulasi jamur entomopatogen menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap pola
faktorial dengan 2 faktor yaitu jenis isolat dan substrat. Sebanyak 500 g tanah diambil dari pertanaman kubis di Padang
Panjang (Desa Koto Panjang) dan Alahan Panjang (Desa Rimbo Data) kemudian dimasukkan ke dalam kotak plastik.
Sebanyak 10 ekor Tenebrio molitor stadia larva instar ketiga yang baru berganti kulit dimasukkan ke dalam kotak
yang berisi tanah, kemudian ditutup dengan selapis tipis tanah dan dilembabkan dengan menyemprotkan akuades
steril di atasnya sebanyak 100-150 ml. Kotak tersebut diletakkan di laboratorium dengan kelembaban >90%. Larva
yang terinfeksi setelah 3-4 hari digunakan sebagai sumber isolat jamur entomopatogen. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan
bahwa jamur yang menginfeksi T. molitor adalah jamur entomopatogen yang dapat menyebabkan kematian hama
krop kubis Crocidolomia pavonana F.. Enam jenis jamur patogen serangga berhasil dibiakkan pada media SDAY.
Genus jamur patogen tersebut adalah Fusarium sp., Beauveria sp., Metarhizium sp., Nomuraea sp., Paecilomyces
sp., dan Achersonia sp.. Beras dan gandum adalah substrat yang paling baik bagi perbanyakan dan pertumbuhan
koloni jamur dibandingkan substrat lainnya. Hasil penelitian ini membuktikan bahwa spesies jamur entomopatogen
tersebar secara alami di lingkungan kebun tanaman kubis.

ABSTRACT. Nuraida and A. Hasyim. 2009. Isolation, Identification, and Characterization of Entomopathogenic
Fungi from Rhizosphere of Cabbage Plant. This experiment was conducted at Entomology and Phytopathology
Laboratory Faculty of Agriculture, Andalas University and Entomology Laboratory of Tropical Fruit Research
Institute, Solok, West Sumatera, from March to August 2006. A factorial completely randomized design with 2
factors, i.e. fungi isolates and its substrates was applied. About 500 g soil samples were collected from cabbage
fields in Padang Panjang (Koto Panjang Village) and Alahan Panjang (Rimbo Data Village) and placed into plastic
bags. The soils were screened for the presence of entomopathogenic fungi. The new third instars larvas of Tenebrio
molitor L. were used as baits. About 10 larvae were placed on the soil surface in plastic bowl and covered with
lid. Then the bowl was incubated under laboratory condition with >90% RH. The infected larvas, after 3-4 days,
were used as source of entomopathogenic fungi isolate. The results showed that fungi isolated from T. molitor bait
were all entomopathogenic causing mortality of Crocidolomia pavonana. Six entomopathogens were successfully
cultured on SDAY. These were Fusarium sp., Beauveria sp., Metarhizium sp., Nomuraea sp., Paecilomyces sp., and
Achersonia sp.. Rice and wheat produced better cultures and growth of fungal colony than those other substrates.
The present study has provided strong evidence that entomopathogenic fungal species were naturally spread in the
soil environment of cabbage field.


Keywords


Brassica oleracea; Isolation; Characterization; Identification; Entomopathogenic fungi; Crocidolomia pavonana

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v19n4.2009.p%25p

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