Daya Tumbuh Tanaman Jeruk Kalamondin Hasil Perbanyakan Via Somatik Embriogenesis In Vitro pada Batang Bawah JC

Nirmala Frianti Devy, Arri Sugiyanto, Farida Yulianti

Abstract


Perbanyakan tanaman buah dengan metode sambung pada produk in vitro telah banyak dilakukan. Pada tanaman jeruk, batang bawah merupakan hal penting karena sistem perakaran yang lebih baik dan ketahanan terhadap penyakit akar dibandingkan batang atas komersial.  Penelitian penyambungan in vitro dan ex vitro jeruk Kalamondin hasil perbanyakan somatik embriogenesis (SE) pada batang bawah JC dilakukan di Laboratorium Somatik Embriogensis dan Rumah Pembibitan Balai Penelitian Tanaman Jeruk dan Buah Subtropika (Balitjestro), pada Januari – Desember 2010. Penyambungan dilakukan pada dua kondisi, yaitu (1) kondisi in vitro, yaitu embrio dan planlet Kalamondin disambungkan pada planlet JC dan (2) ex vitro atau kondisi lapangan, yaitu batang atas jenis embrio dan planlet disambungkan pada batang bawah JC dengan perlakuan tiga macam, yaitu planlet JC hasil perbanyakan  SE berumur 4 dan 8 bulan setelah aklimatisasi, serta semaian biji umur 8 bulan.  Masing-masing kegiatan disusun secara rancangan acak kelompok dan rancangan acak lengkap faktorial dengan tiga ulangan dengan unit percobaan masing-masing empat tanaman.  Berdasarkan hasil penelitian disimpulkan bahwa daya tumbuh tanaman jeruk hasil sambungan antara Kalamondin (Citrus mitis Blanco) hasil perbanyakan SE pada batang bawah JC secara ex vitro lebih baik dibanding in vitro. Pada kegiatan in vitro,  sampai dengan umur 10 bulan setelah penyambungan, persentase sambungan yang tidak jadi (mati) dipengaruhi oleh jenis batang atas yang digunakan, di mana penggunaan planlet sebagai batang atas menyebabkan persentase kematian lebih tinggi dibandingkan penggunaan embrio.  Pada penyambungan ex vitro, tidak ada interaksi antara perlakuan batang bawah dengan batang atas pada semua parameter pengamatan, dengan tinggi tanaman hasil sambung pada umur 10 bulan rerata mencapai 53,7 cm. Dari penelitian ini disimpulkan bahwa hasil perbanyakan jeruk melalui SE, baik berupa embrio kotiledonari maupun planlet dapat difungsikan sebagai batang atas dan tumbuh dengan memuaskan bila disambungkan dengan batang bawah jeruk secara ex vitro.


The fruit plant propagation by grafting method of product in vitro has been documented already.  The using of a rootstock is a very important thing in citrus propagation industry.  Besides of its better root system, it has an important role on preventing root diseases attack where scion part relatively more susceptible.  The research of the Calamondin derived from somatic embryogenesis (SE) propagation that grafted in vitro and ex vitro on JC rootstock grafting was conducted in Somatic Embryogenesis Laboratory and Nursery House of Indonesian Citrus and Subtropical Fruit Research Institute (ICISFRI) from January to December 2010.  This research using both embryos and plantlets of citrus cv. Calamondin derived from SE propagation in vitro as stocks and JC as rootstock, respectively. The grafting was done on the two conditions, (1) in vitro i.e. the stock was grafted on the JC plantlet and (2) field condition i.e. the stock plant was grafted on to three treatments rootstock ( 4 and 8 months acclimated SE plant and 8 months age-seedling of JC).  The activities were arranged as randomized block design and factorial rondomized complete design respectively, with three replications with four plants for each experimental unit.  The results showed that the growth of citrus cv. Calamondin (Citrus mitis Blanco) derived from SE propagation on JC rootstock at ex vitro activity better than in vitro activity.  At in vitro activity, up to 10 months after grafting, percentage of death grafting influenced by type of stock, where the used of plantlets as stock causing more death grafting than embryo.  At another activity, there was no interaction between treatment effect with the combination rootstock and stock treatment for all parameters, with plants height average reached 53.7 cm. From this research, we could make a conclusion that the product of propagation via somatic embryogenesis technique, both cotyledonary embryos and plantlets, could be used as a stock that would growth satisfactory if they grafted on the citrus rootstock ex vitro.



Keywords


Calamondin; Plantlet; Sambungan; Citrus mitis Blanco; Embryo somatic

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v21n3.2011.p214-224

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