Pengaruh Varietas dan Ukuran Umbi terhadap Produktivitas Bawang Merah

C Azmi, Iteu Margaret Hidayat, Gugun Wiguna

Abstract


Peningkatan areal pertanaman bawang merah mendorong peningkatan pemanfaatan varietas unggul dan ketersediaan umbi berkualitas sebagai sumber benih. Studi varietas dan ukuran umbi bawang merah terhadap produktivitas hasil telah dilakukan di Kebun Percobaan Margahayu, Balai Penelitian Tanaman Sayuran, Lembang dari bulan Agustus sampai November 2009. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui pengaruh varietas dan ukuran umbi terhadap produktivitas bawang merah. Percobaan disusun menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok pola factorial dengan enam ulangan. Tiga varietas yaitu: Bima, Maja, dan Sumenep dan ukuran umbi, yaitu: kecil (1,04 - 1,29 cm), sedang (1,47-1,67 cm), dan besar (1,93-2,05 cm) diuji dalam penelitian ini. Parameter yang diamati ialah jumlah umbi, diameter umbi, bobot basah, dan bobot kering umbi per rumpun dan per umbi serta per plot. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa produktivitas bawang merah menggunakan umbi ukuran sedang tidak berbeda nyata dengan umbi ukuran besar. Penggunaan umbi ukuran sedang dalam sistem produksi bawang merah dapat mengurangi biaya produksi sebesar 33-40% tanpa mengurangi tingkat produktivitasnya.


Increasing of shallots cultivation area stimulates improving utility of superior varieties and availability of qualified-bulb as seed source. Study on the effect of variety and bulb size on the shallots productivity was conducted at Margahayu Experimental Garden of Indonesian Vegetable Research Institute from August till November 2009. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of variety and bulb size on the shallots productivity. Factorial experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with six replications. Three varieties i.e. Allium ascalonicum Bima, Maja, and Sumenep and bulb sizes of small (1.04-1.29 cm), medium (1.47-1.67 cm), and large (1.93-2.05 cm). Parameters observed in the experiment were number of bulb, bulb diameter, fresh and dry bulb weight per bulb, plant, and plot. The research results indicated that shallots productivity derived from medium bulbs was not significantly different compared to the large size of bulbs. Medium bulb size was appropriate applied in shallots cultivation due to reduce the production cost down to 33-40%.


Keywords


Allium ascalonicum; Variety, Bulb diameter; Productivity.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v21n3.2011.p206-213

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