Produksi Benih Sumber (G0) Beberapa Varietas Kentang dari Umbi Mikro

Iteu Margaret Hidayat

Abstract


Pengembangan kawasan dan industri benih kentang yang terus meningkat dan tersebar di seluruh wilayah kepulauan di Indonesia harus didukung oleh sistem distribusi dan produksi benih yang efisien. Penggunaan umbi mikro merupakan salah satu alternatif untuk mengatasi permasalahan distribusi dan produksi benih sumber. Penelitian tentang penggunaan umbi mikro dalam produksi benih sumber (Go) kentang telah dilakukan di Laboratorium Kultur Jaringan dan Rumah Kasa bebas serangga Balai Penelitian Tanaman Sayuran dari bulan Juni 2010 sampai dengan April 2011. Tujuan penelitian ialah untuk mendapatkan informasi nisbah perbanyakan umbi mikro varietas Amudra, Atlantik M, Cipanas, Granola L, Manohara, Merbabu, dan Ping dalam menghasilkan umbi yang memenuhi kriteria sebagai benih sumber. Umbi mikro yang diperoleh dari kultur in vitro planlet bebas patogen tujuh varietas kentang, yaitu Amudra, Atlantik M, Cipanas, Granola L, Manohara, Merbabu, dan Ping yang telah melampaui masa dormansi ditanam pada media yang terdiri atas campuran pupuk kandang dan arang sekam (1:1. v/v) yang telah disterilkan dengan pengukusan selama 4 jam. Jarak tanam 10 x 10 cm dengan jeluk penanaman 1 cm. Setiap ulangan terdiri atas 20 umbi. Penanaman umbi mikro mengikuti rancangan acak lengkap dengan tiga ulangan. Pemupukan dilakukan dengan memberikan NPK 16:16:16 dosis 5g/l, 3 l pupuk/bak beroda diberikan pada interval 1 minggu sampai tanaman mencapai 10 minggu setelah tanam (MST). Penambahan media tanam dilakukan pada 4 dan 8 MST, dan panen dilakukan pada 12 MST. Hasil panen menunjukkan bobot umbi/tan, jumlah umbi/tan, proporsi umbi dengan diameter 0,7-1, 1,1-2, dan 2,1-3 cm berbeda sangat nyata di antara varietas yang diuji. Umbi mikro var. Amudra dan Merbabu menunjukkan bobot umbi/tanaman tertinggi masing masing 35 dan 34 g/tanaman, dengan proporsi umbi diameter 0,7-1, 1,1-2, dan 2,1-3 cm masing-masing 34,80, 50,52, 15,55%, dan 50,15, 33,93, dan 18,12%. Varietas yang menghasilkan jumlah umbi/ tanaman >10 ialah Granola L, Manohara, Merbabu, dan Ping.


The increasing and developing of potato production area as well as potato seed industry which is spread through out the country must be supported by an efficient seed production and distribution system. The use of microtuber is one alternative to overcome seed production and distribution problems in Indonesia. Study on the use of microtuber in potato basic seed (Go) production was conducted in the Tissue Culture Laboratory and aphid proof Screenhouse, the Indonesian Vegetable Research Institute from June 2010 to April 2011. The study aimed to obtain information on multiplication rate of microtubers var. Amudra, Atlantik M, Cipanas, Granola L, Manohara, Merbabu, and Ping to produce tuber that meets basic seed criteria. Microtubers derived from in vitro culture of virus free plantlet of seven potato varieties viz Amudra, Atlantik M, Cipanas, Granola L, Manohara, Merbabu, and Ping with which their dormancy had broken were planted in the media composed of stable manure and burnt rice husk (1:1 v/v) sterilized by steaming for 4 hours. Planting distance was 10 x 10 cm, 1 cm depth. Each replication consisted of 20 tuber seed. Completely randomized design with three replications was used in the study.  NPK 16:16:16 at 5g/l, 3 l/roller bench was applied at 1 week interval up to weeks after planting (WAP). Medium was added for hilling up at 4 and 8 WAP, and tuber was harvested at 12 WAP. The results indicated that tuber weight/plant, tuber number/plant, tuber proportion with diameter 0.7-1, 1.1-2, and 2.1-3 cm were highly significant different among tested varieties. Plants derived from microtubers var. Amudra and Merbabu performed the highest tuber weight/plant at each 35 and 34 g/plant, with tuber diameter proportion 0.7-1, 1.1-2, and 2.1-3 cm were 34.80, 50.52, 15.55%, and 50.15, 33.93, and 18.12% respectively. Varieties that gave number of tuber/plant >10 were Granola L, Manohara, Merbabu, and Ping.


Keywords


Solanum tuberosum; Microtuber; Basic seed.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v21n3.2011.p197-205

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