Elastisitas Penawaran Output dan Permintaan Input Usahatani Bawang Merah di Kabupaten Demak, Jawa Tengah (Elasticity of Output Supply and Input Demand of Shallot Farming in Demak District, Central Java)

Dewi Sahara, nFN Chanifah

Abstract


Bawang merah merupakan salah satu komoditas sayuran yang mempunyai peran strategis bagi perekonomian Indonesia. Untuk meningkatkan produksi bawang merah, petani menggunakan beberapa input produksi. Perubahan harga bawang merah akan berdampak pada penawaran output dan permintaan input. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh perubahan harga output dan harga input terhadap penawaran output dan permintaan input usahatani bawang merah di Kabupaten Demak, Jawa Tengah. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Desa Raji, Kecamatan Demak, Kabupaten Demak pada bulan September – Desember 2016. Penelitian menggunakan data primer yang dikumpulkan melalui metode survey terhadap 30 responden. Data dianalisis dalam bentuk pangsa permintaan input dengan metode Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penawaran bawang merah elastis terhadap perubahan harga bawang merah dan harga umbi benih, namun kurang elastis terhadap perubahan upah tenaga kerja, serta tidak elastis terhadap perubahan harga pupuk. Permintaan input (umbi benih, pupuk, dan tenaga kerja) bersifat elastis terhadap harga masing-masing input tersebut, dan sebagian besar bersifat inelastis terhadap harga input lainnya. Oleh karena itu untuk meningkatkan penawaran bawang merah, pemerintah seyogyanya mampu menjaga stabilisasi harga bawang merah dan mendorong menggunakan biji bawang merah (true seed shallot) sebagai alternatif untuk mengurangi pemakaian benih umbi bawang merah.

Keywords

Bawang merah; Perubahan harga; Penawaran output; Permintaan input

Abstract

Shallot is one of the vegetable crops that have a strategic role for the Indonesian economy. To increase the production of shallot, the farmers using several of input production. Changes of shallot would have an impact to output supply and input demand. This study aimed to determine the effect of changes in input and output prices to output supply and input demand of shallot farming. The study was conducted in Raji Village, Demak Subdistrict, Demak District in September - December 2016.  Primary data was collected through survey method by interviewing 30 respondents. The data was analyzed in the form of input demand share by Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) method.  The results showed that supply of shallot is elastic to the price changes of shallot and price of seed bulbs, but less elastic to changes in labor wages and inelastic to changes in fertilizer prices. Demand for production input is elastic to the price of each input, and are largely inelastic with respect to other input prices. Therefore, to increase the shallot supply, the Government should be able to maintain the stabilization of shallot prices and encourage the use of true seed shallot as an alternative to reduce the use of shallot seeds.


Keywords


Shallot; Price changes; Supply output; Demand input

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v28n2.2018.p281-288

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