Perbandingan Teknik Inokulasi Puccinia horiana dan Seleksi Bakteri Antagonis untuk Mengendalikan Penyakit Karat Putih pada Krisan

- Hanudin, Waqiah Nuryani, Evi Silvia Yusuf, Ika Djatnika, Muchdar Soedarjo

Abstract


Penyakit karat pada krisan (Dendranthema grandiflora) yang disebabkan oleh Puccinia horiana, merupakan kendala utama dalam budidaya krisan.  Kehilangan hasil krisan oleh patogen tersebut dapat mencapai 100%. Penelitian ini bertujuan (1) mendapatkan teknik inokulasi P. horiana yang efektif menimbulkan gejala penyakit dan (2) mendapatkan bakteri antagonis yang secara efektif dapat mengendalikan penyakit karat putih pada tanaman krisan. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Laboratorium dan Rumah Kaca Balai Penelitian Tanaman Hias (1.100 m dpl.) sejak Juni sampai  dengan Desember 2009. Penelitian terdiri dari dua kegiatan. Rancangan yang digunakan pada masing-masing kegiatan ialah acak kelompok dengan 11 perlakuan yaitu pustul karat direndam dalam air, pustul karat pecah direndam dalam air, pustul karat direndam dalam air disimpan 10oC 12 jam, pustul karat pecah direndam dalam air10oC 12 jam, pustul ditempel di atas daun, pustul pecah ditempel di atas daun, pustul ditempel di bawah daun, pustul pecah ditempel dibawah daun, tanaman plus pustul disimpan di samping tanaman uji disungkup, tanaman pustul pecah disimpan di samping tanaman uji disungkup, dan kontrol dengan tiga ulangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa metode inokulasi P. horiana  isolat yang paling efektif menimbulkan gejala penyakit karat putih pada krisan ialah perlakuan peletakan tanaman yang terinfeksi P. horiana  dengan pustul yang belum maupun telah pecah di samping tanaman sehat.  Dari hasil uji antagonistik diketahui bahwa isolat bakteri antagonis Corynebacterium-2, merupakan isolat yang paling efektif mengendalikan P. horiana. Kemangkusan bakteri antagonis tersebut dalam menekan P. horiana sebanding dengan fungisida sintetik berbahan aktif azoksistrobin 0,1%. Isolat Corynebacterium-2 berpotensi untuk digunakan lebih lanjut sebagai bahan aktif biopestisida yang efektif untuk mengendalikan penyakit karat putih pada krisan. Pegembangan biopestisida tersebut diharapkan dapat menekan penggunaan pestisida sintetik.



White rust disease caused by P. horiana is one of the serious problems on chrysanthemum cultivation. The pathogen causes yield losses  up to 100%. The research was aimed (1) to determine the effective inoculation technique and (2) to select antagonistic bacteria  for effectively controlling the pathogen. The research was carried out  in the Laboratory and  Glasshouse of Indonesian Ornamental Crops Research Institute (IOCRI), from June to December 2009.  The research consisted of two experiments. Each experiments was arranged in a randomized completely block design with 11 treatments i.e. rust pustuls dipped in water, mature rust pustuls dipped in water, rust pustuls dipped in water and stored at 10oC during 12 hours, mature rust pustuls dipped in water and stored at 10oC during 12 hours, pustuls adhered on the leaf, mature pustuls adhered on the leaf, pustuls adhered beneath the leaf, mature rust pustuls adhered beneath the leaf, the plant + pustuls stored beside tested plants covered by transparent plastic, mature pustuls plants stored beside tested plants covered by transparent plastic, and control with three replications. The results indicated that the most effective inoculation technique for the pathogen was locating and infected plant with immature or mature pustuls  surounding  a healthy plant. The effective antagonistic bacteria against the pathogen was Corynebacterium-2. The effectiveness of  the antagonistic bacteria in suppressing P. horiana  was equivalent to synthetic fungicide  azoksistrobin 0.1%. The Corynebacterium-2 isolate will be potentially used as an active ingredient of biopesticide for controlling white rust disease on chrysanthemum. The development of the biopesticide is expected to decrease to utilization of synthetic pesticides.


Keywords


Dendranthema grandiflora; Corynebacterium sp.; Puccinia horiana; White rust diseases; Biopesticide

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v21n2.2011.p173-184

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