Persepsi dan Adaptasi Petani Sayuran Terhadap Perubahan Iklim di Sulawesi Selatan (Vegetable Farmers’ Perception on Adaptation to Climate Change in Lowland and Highland Areas of South Sulawesi)

Witono Adiyoga, Liferdi Lukman

Abstract


Perubahan iklim di Indonesia dalam jangka menengah ke depan akan menjadi ancaman serius bagi ketahanan pangan. Penelitian survey dilaksanakan di ekosistem dataran tinggi dan rendah Sulawesi Selatan (mencakup tiga pola musim yaitu sektor barat, peralihan, dan timur) pada bulan Juni-Agustus 2012. Pada setiap ekosistem, 110 petani dipilih secara acak, sehingga total responden adalah 220 petani sayuran. Pengumpulan data dilakukan melalui wawancara menggunakan kuesioner terstruktur. Penelitian ini diarahkan untuk mempelajari adaptasi aktual yang dilakukan pada tingkat usahatani, serta mengidentifikasi faktor-faktor yang menjadi kendala adaptasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dari 36 opsi adaptasi yang ditawarkan, mayoritas responden mempersepsi 30 opsi (misalnya, penghematan penggunaan air, penggunaan varietas tahan hama penyakit, dsb.) sebagai cara adaptasi yang potensial atau relevan untuk dilaksanakan di semua pola musim. Sementara itu, opsi-opsi yang dipersepsi beragam (relevan/tidak relevan) oleh responden di pola-pola musim yang berbeda di antaranya adalah penggunaan tanaman penutup, penggunaan varietas tanaman toleran salinitas, dsb. Opsi-opsi adaptasi (misalnya, penanaman pada awal musim hujan, penerapan rotasi tanaman, dsb.) diklaim telah dilaksanakan oleh proporsi responden yang lebih tinggi secara konsisten pada semua pola musim. Opsi-opsi lainnya (misalnya, penggunaan tanaman penutup, penggunaan varietas toleran salinitas, dsb.) dipersepsi secara beragam. Mayoritas petani responden mempersepsi perlunya dukungan teknologi untuk opsi-opsi, misalnya penerapan pengolahan tanah minimum, penggunaan pestisida hayati, dsb. Sementara itu, untuk opsi-opsi lain, misalnya mencari informasi lengkap tentang perubahan iklim dan lebih giat untuk mendapatkan pekerjaan paruh waktu di luar pertanian, dipersepsi beragam antarpola musim. Keberagaman persepsi antarpola musim pada dasarnya menunjukkan pengaruh spesifik lokasi usahatani. Analisis selanjutnya menunjukkan bahwa faktor pendidikan, usia, dan luas lahan garapan sangat berpengaruh terhadap pengambilan keputusan petani untuk melaksanakan/tidak melaksanakan opsi adaptasi. Sementara itu, tiga faktor sikap yang pengaruhnya paling dominan adalah sikap berkaitan dengan pengaruh terhadap penurunan kualitas hidup, sikap berkaitan dengan perlunya perhatian lebih terhadap perubahan iklim, dan sikap berkaitan dengan kapasitas adaptasi petani. Sebagian besar petani secara konsisten mempersepsi tiga hal yang berdasarkan urutan kepentingannya menjadi kendala utama adaptasi, yaitu perhatian dan kebijakan pemerintah yang masih lemah, harga sarana/input produksi yang mahal, dan tidak tersedia teknologi budidaya yang dirancang untuk beradaptasi terhadap perubahan iklim. Upaya sosialisasi/kampanye yang bersifat informatif dan edukatif perlu terus dilakukan untuk mengembangkan strategi pengelolaan risiko iklim dan meningkatkan keterampilan serta pengetahuan petani agar dapat menghadapi variabilitas dan perubahan iklim secara lebih baik.

Keywords

Persepsi; Opsi adaptasi; Perubahan iklim; Sayuran; Pola musim

Abstract

Climate change in Indonesia in the next medium-term will become a serious threat to food security. A survey was carried out in lowland and highland vegetable production centers of South Sulawesi (covering three season patterns: west, transition, and east) in June-August 2012. In each eco-system, 110 respondents were randomly selected and in total 220 respondents participated in the survey. Data were gathered through interviews by using a structured questionnaire. The study was aimed at assessing actual adaptation to climate change at the farmers’ level and identifying constraining factors to the adoption of adaptation options. Results shows that 30 out of 36 listed options, such as conserving the use of water, the use of pest/disease resistant varieties, etc., are potential/relevant adaptation options as perceived by most respondents. Meanwhile, in different season pattern, farmers’ perceptions vary regarding for instance the use of cover crop, the use of varieties tolerant to salinity, etc. Most farmers in all season patterns claim that they have implemented some adaptation options, such as planting early in the beginning of rainy season, the use of crop rotation system, etc. However, farmers’ perceptions vary regarding the use of cover crop, the use of varieties tolerant to salinity, etc. Majority of respondents perceive the need of technological supports for some options, such as the use of minimum tillage, the use of natural or biopesticide, etc. In the meantime, among different season patterns, farmers’ perceptions vary regarding the option of looking for complete climate change information, looking for off-farm part-time jobs, etc. Farmers’ perceptions that vary are actually reflecting their response to different farm location specifity. Further analysis suggests that respondents’ education, age, and land size significantly affect farmers’ decision whether implementing a particular adaptation option or not. Three attitude factors that also show significant influence are attitude towards impact on decreasing quality of life, attitude towards the need for more attention to climate change, and attitude towards farmers’ adaptive capacity. Based on rank of importance, the three main contraints of adaptation are low attention and weak government policies regarding climate change problems, expensive price of production inputs and unavailability of specific technologies designed to adapt to climate change. Informative and educational campaign should be continuously carried out to develop climate risk management strategy and improve farmers’ skill and knowledge to better coping with climate variability and climate change.


Keywords


Perception; Adaptation options; Climate change; Vegetable; Season pattern

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v27n2.2017.p279-296

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