Keefektifan Bahan Pencuci dan Pencegah Penyakit Terhadap Kualitas Buah Mangga CV. Gedong Gincu dan Arumanis (The Effectiveness of Washing Materials and Disease Protecting Agent on the Quality of Mango Fruit cv. Gedong Gincu and Arumanis)

Ahmad Sutopo, Roedhy Poerwanto, Suryo Wiyono

Abstract


Mangga merupakan salah satu komoditas buah tropis di Indonesia yang mempunyai peluang besar untuk pasar domestik dan juga ekspor. Namun, kualitas buah mangga masih memiliki banyak permasalahan. Salah satunya adalah getah yang mengotori kulit buah mangga. Pada saat tangkai buah mangga rusak, getah menyebar pada kulit buah yang menyebabkan kerusakan kulit dan serangan penyakit. Penelitian bertujuan mendapatkan bahan pencuci dan pencegah penyakit yang efektif terhadap kualitas buah mangga cv. Gedong Gincu dan Arumanis. Buah mangga dipanen di kebun petani di Cirebon, Jawa Barat dan Probolinggo, Jawa Timur. Pengamatan dilakukan di Laboratorium Pascapanen Institut Pertanian Bogor pada bulan November 2013 sampai Januari 2014. Penelitian menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap nonfaktorial yang terdiri atas sembilan perlakuan, yaitu air (kontrol) (P0T0), air (kontrol) + fungisida (P0T1), air (kontrol) + khamir Cryptococcus albidus dengan konsentrasi 5 x 104 sel/ml (P0T2), deterjen 1% + air (kontrol) (P1T0), deterjen 1% + fungisida (P1T1), deterjen 1% + khamir C. albidus (P1T2), deterjen 1% + Ca(OH)2 0,5% + air (kontrol) (P2T0), deterjen 1% + Ca(OH)2 0,5% + fungisida (P2T1), dan deterjen 1% + Ca(OH)2 0,5% + khamir C. albidus (P2T2). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa deterjen 1% + Ca(OH)2 0,5% + khamir C. albidus 5 x 104 sel/ml, dan deterjen 1% + Ca(OH)2 0,5% + fungisida 0,025% yang paling efektif menghilangkan getah, mengurangi luka bakar, bintik lentisel, mencegah terjadinya kerusakan penyakit antraknosa dan busuk pangkal buah dibandingkan dengan perlakuan kontrol pada kultivar Gedong Gincu dan Arumanis.

Keywords

Antraknosa; Busuk pangkal buah; Getah; Luka bakar; Khamir

Abstract

Mango is one of the commodity of tropical fruit in Indonesia which has a great opportunities for domestic market and also export. However, quality of mango still has many problems in Indonesia. One of them is the sap contaminating the skin of mango fruit. When the stem of mango fruit is broken, the sap oozes out spreading over the fruit skin causes serious skin damages and attack of disease. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of washing materials and disease protecting agent on the quality of mango fruit cv. Gedong Gincu and Arumanis. Mango fruit was harvested in farmer garden in Cirebon, West Java and Probolinggo, East Java and observation was conducted in Postharvest Laboratory of Bogor Agricultural University in November 2013 to January 2014. The experiment was designed in a completely randomized design nonfactorial that consist of nine treatments: water (control) (P0T0), water (control) + fungicide (P0T1), water (control) + yeast Cryptococcus albidus with concentration 5 g/liter 5 x 104 cell/ml (P0T2), detergent 1% + water (control) (P1T0), detergent 1% + fungicide (P1T2), detergent 1% + yeast C. albidus (P1T0), detergent 1% + Ca(OH)2 0.5% + water (control) (P2T0), detergent 1% + Ca(OH)2 0.5% + fungicide (P2T1), and detergent 1% + Ca(OH)2 0.5% + yeast C. albidus (P2T1).The result showed that the treatment of detergent 1% + Ca(OH)2 0.5% + yeast C. albidus and detergent 1% + Ca(OH)2 0.5% + fungicides 0.025 was effective to removing of sap, less of sap burn injury, lenticel spoting, protecting agent of anthracnose disease and stem end rot as compared to control on mango fruit cv. Gedong Gincu and Arumanis.


Keywords


Anthracnose; Stem end rot; Sap; Sapburn; Yeast

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v27n2.2017.p253-260

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