Bioaktivitas Enam Ekstrak Tumbuhan untuk Pengendalian Hama Tungau Kuning Cabai Polyphagotarsonemus latus Banks (Acari: Tarsonemidae) di Laboratorium

Ahsol Hasyim, Wiwin Setiawati, Luluk Sutji Marhaeni, Liferdi Lukman, Abdi Hudayya

Abstract


(Bioactivity From Six Plants Extract to Control Chili Pepper Yellow Mites Polyphagotarsonemus latus Banks Under Laboratory Condition)

Pada 3 tahun terakhir ini serangan tungau Polyphagotarsonemus latus pada berbagai jenis Capsicum di berbagai sentra produksi semakin meningkat dengan intensitas serangan di atas 30%. Dalam bidang pertanian, sekitar 15.416 ton pestisida telah digunakan untuk tujuan proteksi tanaman, yang setiap tahunnya meningkat sekitar 7%. Tindakan ini dapat mengakibatkan inefisiensi produksi dan dampak negatif terhadap hama target, ekosistem, konsumen, serta risiko residu pestisida dalam produk ekspor. Pengendalian OPT ramah lingkungan akhir-akhir ini dikembangkan dalam usaha tani cabai untuk menekan penggunaan insektisida sintetis. Pemanfaatan pestisida nabati merupakan salah satu pilihan untuk menekan serangan tungau cabai P. latus yang ramah lingkungan. Sebanyak enam jenis tanaman yang berbeda diuji aktivitasnya untuk mengendalikan tungau P. latus . Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi bioaktivitas ekstrak tanaman untuk pengendalian hama tungau kuning cabai di laboratorium. Penelitian dilaksanakan di laboratorium Balai Penelitian Tanaman Sayuran, Lembang dari bulan Oktober 2015 sampai Januari 2016. Metode yang digunakan adalah metode residu pada daun (leaf disc method) modifikasi IRAC no. 4 untuk tungau dan metode dry film atau film kering untuk predator M. sexmaculatus. Data mortalitas tungau diolah menggunakan analisis probit untuk menetapkan nilai LC50 dan LT50. Mortalitas tungau yang disebabkan oleh bioakarisida tanaman dihitung pada 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, dan 72 jam setelah perlakuan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai LC50 bioakarisida yang berasal dari ekstrak akar tuba, huni, kirinyuh, widuri, ketapang dan gamal berturut-turut adalah 286,84; 370,57; 373,03; 477,92; 525,110; dan 650,44 ppm, sedangkan waktu yang dibutuhkan untuk mematikan 50% tungau dari ekstrak bioakasida tanaman berturut-turut adalah kirinyuh, akar tuba, huni, widuri, ketapang, dan gamal berturut-turut adalah 9,98; 9,99; 12,65; 20,01; 26,61; dan 42,77 jam. Hasil perhitungan nilai selectivity ratio (SR) menunjukkan bahwa semua jenis ekstrak tumbuhan sebagai bioakarisida yang diuji selektif terhadap predator M. sexmaculatus, hal ini disebabkan karena nilai SR <1. Kombinasi ekstrak bioakarisida tanaman selektif tersebut dengan pelepasan predator M. sexmaculatus merupakan komponen teknologi PHT yang dinilai efektif untuk mengendalikan hama tungau pada tanaman cabai. Untuk memantapkan hasil penelitian diperlukan uji lanjut di lapangan.

Keywords

Bioakarisida; Ekstrak; Pengendalian; Tungau; Musuh alami

Abstract

In the last 3 years P. latus severity on various types of Capsicum in some central production increased with the intensity above 30%. In agriculture, around 15,416 tonnes of pesticides have been used for plant protection purposes, which annually increased about 7%. This act can resulting inefficiency of production and the negative impact on the target pest, ecosystem, consumers, and the risk of pesticide residues in exported products . In the recent years, environmentally –friendly pest management is established to reduce the use of synthetic pesticides. Utilization of botanical pesticides is one option for environmentally friendly to suppress the attack of chili mite P. latus. Plants extracts of from six plant species were screened for contact toxicity and antifeedant activities against mite, P. latus. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of some plant extracts as bioacaricide for pest mite P. latus on chili plants. The experiments were conducted at the Laboratory of Pests and Diseases, Indonesian Vegetables Research, Lembang, West Java Province from October 2015 until January 2016. A modified leaf disc method describes by IRAC no. 4 was used for mites and for dry film method for or predators of M. sexmaculatus. Mite mortality was observed at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 72 hour after treatment. The mortality of mite data was analyzed using probit to determine the LC50 and LT50 values. The result shows that LC50 obtained from plant bioacaricide of tuba root, kirinyuh, huni, widuri, ketapang, and gamal were 286.84, 370.57, 373.03, 477.92, 525.110 and 650.44 ppm respectively. Whereas LT50 obtained from plant bioacariside of kirinyuh, tuba root, huni, widuri, ketapang, and gamal were 9.98, 9.99, 12.65, 20.01, 26.61, and 42.77 hours respectively. The results of the calculation of the value of selectivity ratio (SR) shows that all plant extracts tested as bioacaricide were selective against predators M. sexmaculatus due to the value of SR <1. The combination of extract bioacaricide selective with inundative release of M. sexmaculatus adult to achieve sound of IPM mite in chili pepper. A field trial is still needed to confirm result of this study.


Keywords


Bioacaricide; Extract; Plant; Controlling; Mite; Natural enemies

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v27n2.2017.p217-230

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