Pengujian Stabilitas Genetik Plantlet Citrumelo Hasil tTCL dari Kultur In Vitro Dengan Menggunakan Teknik Sekuen Berulang (Genetic Stability Assessment of Plantlet Derived tTCL Citrumelo Using Repetitive Sequence Technique)

Farida Yulianti, Hidayatul Arisah, Dita Agisimanto

Abstract


Protokol organogenesis untuk perbanyakan plantlet Citrumelo menggunakan metode transverse thin cell layer (tTCL) batang telah berhasil dikembangkan. Identifikasi stabilitas genetik tanaman hasil kultur jaringan mutlak diperlukan untuk menguji keberadaan off-type. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengetahui potensi primer retrotransposon dan inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) dalam mendeteksi stabilitas genetik tanaman Citrumelo dari periode kultur yang panjang. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan Juni 2013 sampai dengan Oktober 2015 di Laboratorium Pemuliaan Tanaman, Balai Penelitian Tanaman Jeruk dan Buah Subtropika, Tlekung. Sebanyak empat penanda dengan urutan basa berulang, yaitu retrotransposon dan ISSR digunakan untuk menguji stabilitas genetik plantlet in vitro yang berumur 22 bulan dan untuk mengonfirmasi metode yang dapat diandalkan untuk perbanyakan jeruk Citrumelo yang true-to-type pada masa mendatang. Daun plantlet diseleksi dan diisolasi secara bulk. Amplifikasi dilakukan terhadap DNA dengan sistem bulk segregant analysis (BSA), dan kemudian dipisahkan menggunakan gel agarose. Tanaman in vitro yang sama secara morfologi dapat dibedakan oleh penanda INT-retrotransposon yang mendeteksi adanya kehilangan pita pada grup sampel dengan ukuran 550 bp. Keberadaan retrotransposon dalam genom berlimpah dan aktivasinya diinduksi oleh stres. Kondisi kultur jaringan berpotensi menginduksi aktivasi retrotransposon. Keragaman genetik diperoleh sebesar 2,6%, tetapi masih dapat diterima untuk plantlet yang dihasilkan dari kultur jangka panjang. Plantlet yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah plantlet yang dikulturkan sejak awal tahun 2014 dan telah digunakan untuk mempelajari faktor media dan lingkungan kultur yang efisien pada Citrumelo selama periode 2014–2015. Aktivitas pengkajian variabilitas genetik plantlet yang dihasilkan melalui tTCL batang masih terus dilakukan. Kombinasi protokol dan deteksi berbasis penanda PCR menjadi sarana yang efektif untuk perbanyakan massa benih berkualitas hasil kultur jaringan untuk mendukung progam pemuliaan maupun perbenihan.

Keywords

Citrumelo; tTCL; Variabilitas genetik; Retrotransposon; ISSR

Abstract

Assessment of genetic stability of long-term cultivation of plantlet derived tTCL Citrumelo using repetitive sequence primers. Regeneration of plantlet from organogenesis of stem transverse thin cell layer (tTCL) was achieved for Citrumelo, a valuable rootstock. Identification of the genetic stability of plant tissue culture is absolutely necessary. The aim of this study was to assess the potential retrotransposons and inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) primers in detecting the genetic stability of the Citrumelo plantlet derived from tTCL technique. The research was conducted from Juni 2013 until October 2015 in Breeding Laboratory of Indonesian Citrus and Subtropical Fruits Research Institute. A four repetitive based sequences retrotransposon and ISSR marker assays were used to evaluate genetic stability of a group of 22 months old in vitro plantlets and to confirm the most reliable method for true-to-type propagation of Citrumelo. Leaves of plantlets were selected and isolated in bulk. Groups of DNA in bulk segregant analysis (BSA) were amplified and separated using agarose gel. Vitroplants that morphologically similar have been effectively distinguished by a selected primer INT- retrotransposon that detect an deletion band at 550 bp on a line a group of sample. Retrotransposon is abundance through the genome and its activation induced by stress condition. Tissue culture condition was reported potential to induce retrotransposon activation. The genetic variation of 2.6% was acceptable for the culture that produced from long-term. Plantlets used in this study were selected from population induced from early 2014, and employed for studying media as well as environment factors for efficiently organogenesis of citrumelo in period of 2014-2015. However, additional study is on going for evaluating genetic variability from a cycle plantlet production through tTCL of stems. This combination protocol of organogenesis and PCR based markers detection would be powerful tools for mass propagation of high quality seedling derived tissue culture for breeding or cultivation programs.


Keywords


Citrumelo; tTCL; Genetic variability; Retrotransposon; ISSR

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v27n2.2017.p165-172

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