Pengaruh Penyambungan Plantlet Jeruk Siam Kintamani (Citrus nobilis Lour.) yang Diregenerasi Melalui Embriogenesis Somatik Terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Produksi Tanaman

Nirmala Friyanti Devy, nFN Yenni, nFN Hardiyanto

Abstract


(The Effect of Grafted Kintamani Tangerine Plantlet Derived from Somatic Embryogenesis on its Growth and Production)

Plantlet jeruk hasil perbanyakan embriogenesis somatik (ES) in vitro telah banyak dihasilkan. Meskipun demikian, pertumbuhan vegetatif dan generatif di lapang belum dievaluasi. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi kemampuan pertumbuhan vegetatif dan generatif tanaman jeruk hasil sambung dengan plantlet asal ES dibandingkan mata tempel asal BPMT. Penelitian dilakukan di Kebun Percobaan Tlekung, Balai Penelitian Tanaman Jeruk dan Buah Subtropika, mulai September 2013 sampai dengan Desember 2016. Materi penelitian adalah tanaman jeruk dengan batang atas asal (a) plantlet hasil regenerasi melalui ES tanpa bagian akarnya dan (b) mata tempel yang berasal dari Blok Penggandaan Mata Tempel (BPMT), yang masing-masing disambungkan dan ditempelkan dengan batang bawah Japansche Citroen (JC) berumur 8 bulan setelah transplanting. Tanaman hasil sambung berumur 1 tahun dipindah dan ditanam di lapang dengan jarak tanam rapat 1,5 m x 1,5 m. Pengamatan pertumbuhan dilakukan mulai umur 18 – 42 bulan setelah transplanting (BST). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tanaman jeruk dengan batang atas hasil ES dapat tumbuh, berkembang, dan berproduksi sama dengan tanaman dengan batang atas asal BPMT. Tinggi tanaman, diameter batang atas, dan diameter batang bawah pada tanaman ES tidak berbeda nyata dengan tanaman BPMT. Tanaman pada dua perlakuan mulai berbunga pada umur 18 BST, dengan jumlah bunga, buah, dan persentase fruitset yang tidak berbeda nyata antarkedua perlakuan, demikian juga pada pembungaan pada tahun berikutnya. Jumlah buah pada tahun ke-2 berbuah (September 2014) dan akhir pengamatan (September 2016) menunjukkan terjadi kenaikan sebesar 215,7% dan 176,1% pada masing-masing perlakuan ES dan BPMT, sedangkan pada tahun ke-4 pembuahan (2016), perlakuan tanaman jeruk hasil ES mempunyai jumlah buah/tanaman dan berat buah total/tanaman lebih banyak secara nyata dibandingkan asal BPMT. Sifat fisik dan kualitas buah (vit C, total keasaman, dan TPT) yang dihasilkan relatif sama. Tanaman jeruk siam Kintamani yang berasal dari plantlet hasil perbanyakan ES in vitro dan disambungkan dengan batang bawah JC dapat tumbuh, berkembang, dan berproduksi dengan normal di lapang.

Keywords

Siam Kintamani (Citrus nobilis Lour.); BPMT; Sambung; Tempel; Embriogenesis somatik

Abstract

The plantlets derived from citrus somatic embryogenesis (SE) in vitro have been widely produced. However, their vegetative and generative growth in the field has not been evaluated. The aimed of this research was to evaluate the ability of vegetative and generative growth both of SE and Budwood Multiplication Block (BMB) derived citrus plants. The research was conducted in Tlekung Experimental Garden, Indonesian Citrus and Subtropical Fruit Research Institute, from September 2013 to December 2016. The citrus plants derived from (a) root-decapitated plantlets and (b) buds come from BMB that were grafted and budded, respectively on 8 months old JC rootstock. One-year old grafted and budded plants were planted at field using a dense spacing (1.5 m x 1.5 m). The plant growth observation was done at 18–42 months after field transplanting (MAT). The results showed that the SE derived citrus plants could grow, develop, and produce as well as the BMB one. The SE and BMB plant height, scion, and rootstock diameter were not significantly different. All treatment plants were flowering on 18 MAT, the number of flower, fruit, and fruit set percentages were not significantly as well as in the following year. The fruit total in the 2nd year (September 2014) and the end of the observation (September 2016) showed an increase of 215.7% and 176.1% on the both of SE and BMB derived plant, respectively. In the 4th year (2016), the number fruits/plant and total fruit weight/plant were better on SE derived plant than BMB one, however the fruit physical and quality properties produced (vitamin C, total acidity, and TSS) were relatively similar. The Kintamani tangerine citrus plants derived from plantlet that grafted on to JC rootstock could grow develop and produce well in the field.


Keywords


Kintamani tangerine (Citrus nobilis Lour.); Budwood multiplication block; Grafting; Budding; Somatic embryogenesis

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v27n2.2017.p173-184

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