Keragaman Jeruk Gunung Omeh (Citrus nobilis Lour.) di Sumatera Barat Berdasarkan Marka RAPD [The Diversity of Gunung Omeh Citrus (Citrus nobilis Lour.) in West Sumatera Based on RAPD Marker]

Nirmala Friyanti Devy, nFN Hardiyanto

Abstract


Jeruk siam Gunung Omeh/Gn. Omeh (Citrus nobilis Lour.) merupakan jeruk lokal yang berkembang di seluruh sentra jeruk Sumatera Barat. Namun, buah yang ada di pasar sangat beragam fenotipiknya. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengelompokkan sebaran tanaman jeruk Gn. Omeh yang berada pada empat Kabupaten berdasarkan karakter genetik dan morfologi. Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan Januari sampai dengan Juni 2016, dengan 21 contoh daun dan buah berasal dari petani di empat kabupaten pengembangan wilayah jeruk Sumatera Barat (Kabupaten Limapuluh Kota, Agam, Solok Selatan, dan Tanah Datar), dan dua contoh daun kontrol masing-masing asal BPMT dan PIT di Kabupaten Limapuluh Kota. Keragaman morfologi daun dan buah dianalisis dengan Analisis Komponen Utama (Principal Component Analysis/PCA). Data yang dihasilkan dianalisis lebih lanjut dengan kluster analisis untuk mengamati pengelompokannya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan tingkat kemiripan secara genetik 23 contoh jeruk Gn. Omeh yang dianalisis menggunakan dua macam RAPD marker, yaitu OPA 04 dan OPA 18 yang menghasilkan 24 pita, di mana 83,3% adalah polimorfik. Berdasarkan dendrogram yang dihitung menurut UPGMA, 23 contoh daun jeruk secara genetis terbagi menjadi dua kelompok besar. Pada kelompok I, terdapat dua contoh asal Kabupaten Limapuluh Kota, sedangkan 21 contoh sisanya berada pada kelompok II. Pada derajat kemiripan antara 86,5–96%, tanaman PIT mirip dengan A1 dan satu subkelompok dengan S2, A5, T3, T5, dan S1, sedangkan BPMT mirip dengan T4, dan satu subkelompok dengan A4 dan A3. Berdasarkan karakter morfologi pada derajat kemiripan 75%, jeruk Gn. Omeh di Sumatera Barat terbagi menjadi lima kelompok, di mana pada kelompok 1, 3, 4, dan 5 masing-masing adalah contoh L1, T5, S5, dan S2, sedangkan 18 tanaman lainnya masuk di dalam kelompok 2. Dari hasil analisis secara genetik maupun morfologi menghasilkan derajat variasi yang cukup tinggi di antara 23 contoh yang ada. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa keragaman buah yang ada diduga disebabkan oleh penggunaan benih serta pengelolaan tanaman yang beragam.

Keywords

Jeruk (Citrus nobilis Lour.); RAPD; Morfologi

Abstract

The Gunung Omeh citrus (Citrus nobilis Lour.) is a local citrus growing throughout the citrus center of West Sumatera. However, the fruits available in the market are very diverse phenotypic. The purpose of this study is to classify the spread of citrus cv. Gn. Omeh derived from four districts based on genetic and morphological characters. The study was conducted from January to June 2016, with 21 of leaf and fruit samples collected from four Citrus District Regional Development farmers in the West Sumatera (Limapuluh Kota, Agam, Solok Selatan, and Tanah Datar). Besides that, control leaf samples derived from Budwood Multiplication Block/BPMT and Single Mother Tree/PIT were used. The morphological diversity both leaves and fruits were analyzed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The result showed that the level of genetic similarity in 23 samples of orange Gn. Omeh analyzed using two markers RAPD namely OPA 04 and OPA 018 which generate 24 bands, where 83.3% were polymorphic The resulting data were further analyzed by cluster analysis to observe groupings. Based on the dendrogram calculated according to UPGMA, 23 samples genetically are divided into two major groups. In the first group, there are two samples from Limapuluh Kota, while the remaining 21 samples are in second group. On the degree of similarity between 86.5–96%, PIT similar to the A1 plant and it belong to the same subgroup with S2, A5, T3, T5, S1. While BPMT similar to T4 plant, and it belong to the same subgroup with A4 and A3. Based on morphological characters at a 75% degree of similarity, the Gn. Omeh citrus in West Sumatra is divided into five groups, where the L1, T5, S5, and S2 plant sample belongs to the groups 1, 3, 4, and 5, respectively, while 18 others in Group 2. From the analysis of both genetic and morphological characters, it generates fairly high degree of variation among 23 samples. This shows that the diversity of the marketed is thought to be caused by the use of seed plants and crop cultivated management are diverse.


Keywords


Citrus nobilis Lour.; RAPD; Morphological

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v27n2.2017.p155-164

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