Pengaruh Ozonisasi dan Kemasan untuk Mereduksi Residu Pestisida dan Mempertahankan Karakteristik Kesegaran Cabai Merah dalam Penyimpanan

Ali Asgar, Darkam Musaddad, Rahmat Sutarya

Abstract


(The Effect of Ozone and Packaging in Storage for Decreasing in Pesticide Residue and Keeping the Freshness of Red Chili Characteristic)

Pestisida merupakan suatu substansi bahan kimia dan material lain (mikrob, virus, dan lain-lain) yang tujuan penggunaannya untuk mengontrol atau mengendalikan hama/penyakit yang menyerang tanaman, bagian tanaman, dan produk pertanian, membasmi rumput/gulma, mengatur dan menstimulasi pertumbuhan tanaman/bagian tanaman, namun bukan penyubur. Hampir semua sampel yang diuji positif mengandung residu pestisida walaupun kadarnya di bawah ambang batas yang diizinkan. Penelitian bertujuan (1) mengetahui pengaruh ozonisasi terhadap karakteristik kesegaran cabai merah dan reduksi residu pestisida selama penyimpanan pada suhu kamar dan (2) mengetahui pengaruh suhu dan jenis pengemas terhadap kualitas cabai merah vatietas Tit Segitiga selama penyimpanan. Penelitian dilakukan dari bulan Januari sampai dengan Desember 2013 di Balai Penelitian Tanaman Sayuran, Lembang. Penelitian pendahuluan dilakukan terhadap konsentrasi gas ozon yang terdiri atas (1) 0,0 ppm (kontrol tanpa perendaman), (2) 0,0 ppm (perendaman dalam air tanpa ozon), (3) 0,2 ppm, (4) 0,4 ppm, (5) 0,6 ppm, (6) 0,8 ppm, dan (7) 1 ppm. Penelitian utama dilakukan menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok pola petak terpisah dengan dua ulangan. Sebagai petak utama, yaitu suhu terdiri atas (1) 5°C, (2) 10°C, (3) 15°C, dan (4) suhu kamar. Sebagai anak petak, yaitu pengemas terdiri atas (1) polipropilen (PP 0,03 mm), (2) polietilen (PE 0,03 mm), (3) wrapping plastic, dan (4) kontrol (tanpa pengemas). Hasil pendahuluan menunjukkan bahwa kesegaran dan penampakan cabai merah dengan perlakuan larutan ozon 0,4 ppm merupakan perlakuan terbaik dan disukai panelis. Dengan perlakuan larutan ozon 0,4 ppm, cabai merah mempunyai residu pestisida profenofos 1,1504 ppm (terjadi penurunan 35,9073%), klorfirifos 0,1519 ppm (terjadi penurunan 23,2441%), TPC (jumlah total mikrob) 31,25 x 105 cfu/ml, susut bobot 15,50%, kadar air 85,53%, warna (nilai L*) 30,52. Hasil penelitian utama menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan yang terbaik selama penyimpanan minggu keempat, yaitu suhu penyimpanan 5ºC dengan macam kemasan polietilen (PE) dan wrapping plastic.

Keywords

Cabai merah; Ozon; Pengemasan; Pendinginan

Abstract

Pesticide is a chemical substance and other materials (microbes, viruses, etc.) which are intended to control pests or diseases that attack plants, plant parts and agricultural products, eradicate the grass/weeds, regulate and stimulate plant growth or parts of the plant, but not the fertilizer. Almost all of the samples that tested positive for pesticide residues even though the levels were below the allowed threshold. Research aims were (1) to determine the effect of ozonation on the characteristics of red chili freshness and reduction of pesticide residues during storage at room temperature and (2) to determine the effect of temperature and packaging on the quality of red chili during storage. The study was conducted from January–December 2013 at The Research Institute of Vegetable. Preliminary research conducted on the concentration of ozone which consists of (1) 0.0 ppm (control without soaking), (2) 0.0 ppm (immersion in water without ozone), (3) 0.2 ppm, (4) 0.4 ppm , (5) 0.6 ppm, (6) 0.8 ppm, and (7) 1 ppm. Primary research conducted using randomized block split plot with repeated patterns as much as two times. Temperature as the main plot which consists of (1) 5° C, (2) 10° C, (3) 15° C, and (4) room temperature. The subplot is packaging which consists of (1) polypropylene (PP 0.03 mm, (2) polyethyelene (PE 0.03 mm), (3) wrapping plastic, and (4) control (without packaging). Preliminary results show that the freshness and appearance of red chili with 0.4 ppm ozone treatment was the best treatment and preferred by panelists. Treatment with a solution of 0.4 ppm ozone, the red chili have pesticide residue of profenofos 1.1504 ppm (decrease as much as 35,9073%), 0.1519 ppm klorfirifos (decrease as much as 23,2441%), TPC (total number of microbes) 31.25 x 105 cfu/ml, 15.50% weight loss, levels of 85.53% water content, color (L* value) 30.52. The main research results showed that the best treatment for 4 weeks of storage is the storage temperature of 5 º C with wide packaging polyethylene (PE) and wrapping plastic.


Keywords


Red chili; Ozon; Packaging; Cooling

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v27n2.2017.p241-252

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