Pewarnaan Kromosom dan Pemanfaatannya dalam Penentuan Tingkat Ploidi Eksplan Hasil Kultur Anter Anthurium

Budi Winarto

Abstract


Metode pewarnaan Kromosom yang optimal merupakan prasarat penting dalam penentuan level ploidi tanaman hasil kultur anter, termasuk variasi eksplan hasil kultur anter Anthurium. Aplikasi dan modifikasi metode pewarnaan kromosom pada berbagai eksplan dilakukan di Laboratorium Kultur Jaringan Balai Penelitian Tanaman Hias dari bulan Februari sampai dengan Agustus 2009 untuk mengetahui keragaman dan tingkat ploidi regeneran hasil kultur anter Anthurium. Penelitian bertujuan mendapatkan metode pewarnaan kromosom dan modifikasinya, jenis eksplan dan akar yang sesuai untuk mempelajari tingkat ploidi regeneran hasil kultur anter Anthurium. Bahan yang digunakan ialah kalus, pucuk tunas, dan ujung akar udara. Penelitian terdiri atas tiga kegiatan, yaitu (1) modifikasi metode pewarnaan kromosom, (2) seleksi eksplan yang sesuai untuk pewarnaan kromosom, dan (3) optimasi metode pewarnaan kromosom terseleksi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ujung akar dan akar yang ditumbuhkan pada medium yang mengandung 1% arang aktif merupakan jenis eksplan dan akar yang sesuai untuk mendapatkan hasil pewarnaan kromosom yang baik. Modifikasi metode pewarnaan kromosom dengan pemanasan ujung akar pada 1N HCl : asam asetat glasial 45% (3:1, v/v) selama 10 menit pada suhu 60oC dan perlakuan aseto-orcein selama 15 menit merupakan metode pewarnaan kromosom yang lebih baik dalam menghasilkan obyek kromosom yang mudah dihitung. Penerapan metode pewarnaan kromosom pada kultur anter Anthurium dapat memisahkan tingkat ploidi regeneran. Pada penelitian ini rasio ploidi regeneran kultur anter ialah 33,5% haploid, 62,7% diploid, dan 5,7% triploid. Metode pewarnaan kromosom yang berhasil dikembangkan dalam penelitian ini sangat bermanfaat dalam pengembangan teknologi haploid pada jenis Araceae yang lain.

Optimal chromosome staining method is important pre-requisite in determination of plant ploidy level derived from anther culture, involving varied explants regenerated from Anthurium anther culture. Application and modification of chromosome staining methods on different explants were conducted at the Tissue Culture Laboratory of  Indonesian Ornamental Crops Research Institute from February to August 2009 for determination of the ploidy level of regenerants derived from anther culture of Anthurium. The aim of this research was to determine the chromosome staining method and its modifications, type of explant and root suitable to study the ploidy level of explants derived from anther culture of Anthurium. Callus, shoot tips, and root tips were utilized in the experiment. The research was consisted of three experiments, i.e. (1) modification of chromosome staining methods (2) selection of explants suitable for chromosome staining, and (3) improvement of the selected chromosome staining method. Results of the study indicated that root tips and roots cultured on medium containing 1% active carchoal were the most appropriate explants and the root type in obtaining better chromosome staining results. The modification method with root tip boiled in 1N HCl : 45% of acetic acid glacial (3:1, v/v) for 10 minutes in 60ºC and aceto-orcein treatment for 15 minutes gave appropriate chromosome staining results exhibited clearer chromosome pictures and was easy to be counted. The  application of chromosome staining on anther culture of Anthurium was able to distinguish the ploidy level of regenerants. Ploidy ratio of regenerants derived from anther culture was 33.5% of haploid, 62.7% of diploid, and 5.7% of triploid. Chromosome staining method resulted from the study give high benefit in developing haploid technologies on other Araceae plants.


Keywords


Anthurium andraeanum; Chromosome staining; Ploidy; Callus; Root tip

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v21n2.2011.p113-123

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ISSN: 0853-7097
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