Penekanan Penularan Bean Common Mosaic Virus oleh Efek Penghambat Makan Kitosan Terhadap Aphis craccivora Koch. (Bean Common Mosaic Virus Transmission Inhibition by Antifeedant Chitosan Against Aphis craccivora Koch.)

Dita Megasari, Tri Asmira Damayanti, Sugeng Santoso

Abstract


Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) merupakan virus penting pada kacang panjang di Indonesia. Salah satu cara untuk mengendalikan BCMV adalah dengan penggunaan kitosan. Pada penelitian sebelumnya, kitosan komersial dengan konsentrasi 0,9% dilaporkan mampu menekan infeksi BCMV yang ditularkan oleh Aphis craccivora dengan mekanisme yang belum diketahui. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji mekanisme kitosan dalam menekan transmisi BCMV yang ditularkan oleh A. craccivora. Kitosan yang diuji yaitu kitosan murni dengan konsentrasi 0,1%–1,1% dan kitosan komersial konsentrasi 0,9% sebagai pembanding. Kitosan diaplikasikan dengan cara penyemprotan daun dengan volume 3 ml/tanaman pada hari sebelum penularan BCMV menggunakan tiga ekor kutudaun yang mengandung virus. Peubah yang diamati, yaitu periode inkubasi, insidensi penyakit, keparahan penyakit, akumulasi virus pada tanaman dan kutudaun, serta deteksi gen CP BCMV, PR1, dan PR3 dengan RT-PCR. Secara umum perlakuan kitosan mampu menekan transmisi BCMV oleh A. craccivora. Periode inkubasi tanaman perlakuan berkisar antara 7–9 hari. Perlakuan kitosan murni menekan insidensi dan keparahan penyakit antara 40%–80% dan 35,71%–78,57% tergantung konsentrasi kitosan. Kitosan komersial menghambat insidensi dan keparahan penyakit sampai 100%. Perlakuan kitosan pada konsentrasi 0,9% baik kitosan murni maupun komersial menunjukkan akumulasi BCMV yang lebih rendah dibandingkan kontrol tanpa perlakuan, yaitu pada kitosan komersial 0,9% memiliki nilai absorbansi ELISA (NAE) sebesar 0,26 ± 0,29 dan pada kitosan murni 0,9% memiliki NAE sebesar 1,15 ± 1,69, sedangkan kontrol tanpa perlakuan memiliki NAE sebesar 3,13 ± 0,17. BCMV positif terdeteksi pada kutudaun menunjukkan bahwa kutudaun tidak makan inokulasi pada tanaman perlakuan. Amplifikasi gen CP BCMV dengan RT-PCR menunjukkan positif teramplifikasi pada semua perlakuan kitosan kecuali perlakuan kitosan komersial. Gen PR1 tidak teramplifikasi, sedangkan gen PR3 teramplifikasi pada semua perlakuan. Akumulasi PR3 tertinggi terdapat pada perlakuan 0,5% dan 0,7% dibandingkan dengan perlakuan lain dan kontrol. Berdasarkan hasil tersebut, perlakuan kitosan lebih berperan sebagai penghambat makan kutudaun daripada sebagai penginduksi ketahanan tanaman.

Keywords

BCMV; Kutu daun; Pathogenesis-related protein; PCR; Vigna sinensis L.

Abstract

Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) is an important virus on beans in Indonesia. One of methods to control BCMV is by chitosan. The previous report showed that commercial chitosan was able to suppress BCMV infection transmitted by Aphis craccivora with an unknown mechanism. This study aimed to examine the mechanism of chitosan in suppressing the transmission of BCMV by A. craccivora. Chitosan used in this research is a pure chitosan with a concentration of 0.1%–1.1% and 0.9% of commercial chitosan as a comparison. Chitosan is applied by spraying the leaves at one day before the transmission of BCMV. BCMV transmitted by using three viruliferous aphids. The incubation period of virus, disease incidence, and severity, virus accumulation in plants and aphids by ELISA were observed, BCMV CP, PR1, and PR3 genes was detected by RT-PCR. In general, chitosan treatments suppressed the transmission of BCMV by A. craccivora. The incubation period ranges from 7–9 days. The pure chitosan treatments suppressed the disease incidence and severity ranged from 40%–80% and 35.71%–78.57%, respectively depends on concentration of chitosan. The commercial chitosan inhibited disease incidence and severity up to 100%. The treated plants at concentration 0.9% either pure or commercial chitosan showed accumulation of BCMV significantly lower in compared with untreated control plants, ie 0.9% in commercial chitosan had ELISA absorbance value (NAE) of 0.26 ± 0.29 and pure chitosan 0.9% had NAE of 1.15 ± 1.69 while the untreated control had an NAE of 3.13 ± 0.17. Further, BCMV were detected aphids which feed on treated plants during inoculation feeding period, indicating virus left over on aphids. Amplification of BCMV CP gene by RT-PCR showed positively amplified by all treatments except commercial chitosan treatment. PR1 gene are not amplified, whereas PR3 gene amplified in all the treatments, but the accumulation higher on treated plants at concentration 0.5% and 0.7% in compare with other treatments. Based on those results, chitosan treatment suppress the BCMV transmission by aphids due to the role of chitosan as anti-feedant which hampered aphids transmit the virus during inoculation feeding period rather than as resistance inducer.


Keywords


BCMV; Aphids; Pathogenesis-related protein; PCR; Vigna sinensis L.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v29n2.2019.p%25p

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