Teknologi Haploid Anyelir: Studi Tahap Perkembangan Mikrospora dan Seleksi Tanaman Donor Anyelir

Suskandari Kartikaningrum, A Purwito, G A Watimena, Budi Marwoto, D Sukma

Abstract


Pengembangan teknologi haploidisasi merupakan salah satu terobosan yang diharapkan mampu mempercepat kebangkitan industri florikultura di Indonesia. Teknologi tersebut dapat menghasilkan tanaman homozigot murni atau tanaman haploid ganda. Tujuan penelitian ialah (1) mengetahui tahap perkembangan bunga, mikrospora, dan viabilitasnya, (2) mendapatkan medium inisiasi yang potensial untuk kultur anter atau mikrospora anyelir. Penelitian dilakukan di Laboratorium Kultur Jaringan, Balai Penelitian Tanaman Hias, Segunung dan Laboratorium Microtechnique, Departemen Agronomi, Institut Pertanian Bogor, mulai September 2009 sampai dengan Oktober 2010. Bahan tanaman yang digunakan ialah lima genotip Dianthus chinensis. Pengamatan mikrospora dengan pengecatan menggunakan DAPI dan FDA, seleksi medium inisiasi, dan tanaman donor dilakukan dalam penelitian ini. Penelitian ini menghasilkan lima genotip D. chinensis yang memiliki kecepatan anthesis yang relatif sama, yaitu berkisar antara 14-16 hari, mempunyai ciri-ciri spesifik, yaitu adanya perubahan warna anter pada fase perkembangan kuncup bunga yang sama dan pada genotip V11, V13, dan V15 yang memiliki ukuran mikrospora bervariasi. Jumlah mikrospora per anter terbanyak ditemukan pada genotip V11, yaitu 30.400. Rasio tahap perkembangan mikrospora berubah sejalan dengan perubahan tahap perkembangan kuncup bunga dengan persentase late-uninucleate tertinggi (44,64%) pada saat kuncup bunga mencapai ukuran antara 1,31 dan 1,51 cm, dan belum ada perubahan warna anter. Viabilitas mikrospora berkisar antara 40-60% dan persentase tertinggi ditunjukkan oleh genotip V11. Fase perkembangan mikrospora T3 (ukuran kuncup 1,31-1,50 cm, warna anter putih) berpotensi untuk pengujian lebih lanjut. Medium inisiasi yang dipilih ialah medium M2 dan M5 yang akan diuji lebih lanjut. Genotip V11 ditetapkan sebagai tanaman donor utama, sedang genotip lain yang berpotensi yaitu V13 dan V15. Hasil penelitian ini bermanfaat sebagai langkah awal pembuatan protokol kultur anter tanaman anyelir.


The development of haploid technology is one of the breakthrough innovation to fasten the revival of floriculture industry in Indonesia. Homozygous double haploid plants can be produced through this technology. The aims of this research were to determine (1) flower development stage, microspores, and survival, (2) isolation techniques and medium having the potential for initiation of anther or microspores culture of carnation. The study was conducted at the Tissue Culture Laboratory, Indonesian Ornamental Crops Research Institute, Segunung, and the Microtechnique Laboratory, Department of Agronomy, Bogor Agricultural University, from September 2009 to October 2010. Five genotypes of Dianthus chinensis were used in this study. Periodically observations of anther morphology, DAPI and FDA staining, selection of medium, and donor plants were done in this research. The results showed that the D. chinensis genotypes tested had relatively the same growth speed of anther ranged from 14 to 16 days, special characteristics in color change of anther of the flower bud stage development of the same genotype and variation of microspore size among the genotypes V11, V13, and V15. The highest number of microspores per anther was presented in genotype V11 (30,400). The ratio of microspore developmental stage changed in line with flower bud development stage with the highest percentage of late-uninucleate (44.64%) at flower bud size between 1.31 to 1.51 cm, and there was no change in color of anther. Microspore viability ranged between 40 and 60%, and the highest percentage shown by genotype V11. Microspore development phase of  T3 (bud size 1.31-1.50 cm, white anther color) had potential for further testing. The selected initiation media were M2 and M5, which will be examined further. Genotype V11 designated as a major donor plant, while the other potential genotypes were V13 and V15. The results of this study are useful as a first step to develop anther culture protocol on carnation.


Keywords


Dianthus sp.; Anther culture; Initiation medium; Donor plants

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v21n2.2011.p101-112

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