Keragaan Pertumbuhan, Kualitas Buah, dan Kelayakan Finansial Dua Varietas Cabai Merah

Thomas Agus Soetiarso, Wiwin Setiawati, Darkam Musaddad

Abstract


Cabai merah merupakan komoditas unggulan yang banyak diusahakan petani karena memiliki nilai ekonomis tinggi. Namun demikian, dalam pengusahaannya masih ditemui berbagai kendala, baik kendala teknis maupun ekonomis. Penelitian bertujuan mengkaji keragaan pertumbuhan, kualitas buah, dan kelayakan finansial dua varietas cabai merah (Hot Chili dan Tanjung-2). Penelitian dilaksanakan di lokasi pengembangan pengelolaan tanaman terpadu (PTT) cabai merah, yaitu di Desa Kawali Mukti, Kecamatan Kawali, Kabupaten Ciamis, Jawa Barat dari bulan Maret-September 2007. Penelitian dilaksanakan tanpa menggunakan rancangan dan ulangan, dengan luasan 2.500 m2 per perlakuan. Perlakuan yang diuji yaitu penggunaan varietas cabai merah (Hot Chili dan Tanjung-2). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Hot Chili menunjukkan pertumbuhan tinggi tanaman dan lebar kanopi, serta produktivitas yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan Tanjung-2. Tingkat kematangan buah Tanjung-2 lebih serempak, waktu panen lebih singkat (10 kali), serta buahnya berwarna merah lebih menarik bila dibuat pasta. Tanjung-2 relatif toleran terhadap serangan trips (Thrips parvispinus), kutudaun (Myzus persicae), dan kutukebul (Bemisia tabaci), namun lebih rentan terhadap penyakit busuk batang (Phytophthora capsici) dan layu bakteri (Ralstonia solanacearum). Dari segi kualitas, dengan ukuran panjang dan diameter buah yang hampir sama, bobot buah Tanjung-2 lebih ringan (8,75 g) dibandingkan dengan Hot Chili (14,02 g), tekstur buah yang lebih lembek (agak lentur) dapat menekan kerusakan selama transportasi, serta lebih mudah untuk digerus. Kadar air buah Tanjung-2 lebih rendah, sehingga  menjadi lebih kental bila dibuat pasta. Secara teknis, produksi Tanjung-2 lebih rendah dibanding Hot Chili. Penggunaan Hot Chili lebih menguntungkan dengan memberikan tingkat pengembalian marjinal sebesar 165,76% dibandingkan dengan Tanjung-2. Produktivitas bukan satu-satunya faktor pendorong adopsi teknologi. Dua faktor lain yang menjadi pertimbangan petani di Kawali-Ciamis dalam mengadopsi teknologi cabai yaitu ketersediaan modal kerja dan umur  panen tanaman.


Hot pepper is a priority vegetable crop that is widely grown by farmers because of its high economic value. However, they are some challenging technical and economical constraints that are still being problem for  hot pepper growers. The objective of this study was to assess growth performance, fruit quality and financial feasibility of two hot pepper varieties i.e. Hot Chili and Tanjung-2. The study was conducted in the development area of hot pepper integrated crop management (ICM), Kawali Mukti Village, Kawali Sub-district, Ciamis District of West Java Province, from March to September 2007. This study was an on-farm research without using an experimental design or replication. Each variety was grown on the farm size of 2,500 m2. Results show that Hot Chili has higher plant height, wider canopy and higher yield than Tanjung-2 . However, Tanjung-2 showed more simultaneous fruit maturity, less number of harvests (10 times), and  had more attractive fruit color, especially for chili paste. This variety was also relatively tolerant to thrips (Thrips parvispinus), aphid (Myzus persicae), and white flies (Bemisia tabaci), but more susceptible to stem rot (Phytophthora capsici) and bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum). In terms of fruit quality, with similar fruit length and diameter, Tanjung-2, had a lighter weight (8.75 g) than Hot Chili (14.02 g) and also softer texture that may reduce fruit damage during transportation and be easier to process. Water content of Tanjung-2 was lower, hence it was thickened more easily if used for paste. Agronomically, the yield of Tanjung-2 was lower than Hot Chili. The use of Hot Chili, however, was more profitable than Tanjung-2, because it exhibited higher marginal rate of return (165.76 %). Yield was not the only factor affecting farmers in technology adoption. Two other factors that had important roles in influencing farmers in Kawali-Ciamis in adopting hot pepper technologies were working capital availability, and plant age (time needed from planting to harvesting).


Keywords


Capsicum annuum; Variety; Plant growth; Fruit quality; Financial feasibility.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v21n1.2011.p77-88

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