Pengaruh Minyak Cengkeh terhadap Pertumbuhan Koloni dan Sifat Antagonis Cendawan Gliocladium sp. terhadap Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense

Deni Emilda, Mizu Istianto

Abstract


Minyak cengkeh dan cendawan Gliocladium sp. diketahui memiliki potensi sebagai agens pengendali cendawan Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), penyebab penyakit layu pada tanaman pisang. Pengujian kompatibilitas antara minyak cengkeh dengan cendawan Gliocladium sp. perlu dievaluasi dalam rangka menyusun paket pengendalian terpadu terhadap penyakit layu Fusarium. Tujuan penelitian ialah mengevaluasi pengaruh minyak cengkeh terhadap pertumbuhan koloni cendawan Gliocladium sp. dan daya hambatnya terhadap cendawan Foc ras 4. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Proteksi Tanaman Balai Penelitian Tanaman Buah Tropika pada bulan Mei sampai Juli 2008. Perlakuan terdiri atas  minyak cengkeh volume 3, 9, dan 18 µl disusun dalam rancangan acak lengkap dengan lima ulangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa miselium cendawan Gliocladium sp. yang mendapat perlakuan minyak cengkeh masih mampu tumbuh hingga memenuhi ruang cawan petri. Jumlah konidia cendawan Gliocladium sp. yang diperlakukan dengan minyak cengkeh terbukti lebih sedikit dibanding cendawan yang tidak diperlakukan dengan minyak cengkeh.  Cendawan Gliocladium sp. yang telah mendapat perlakuan minyak cengkeh masih memiliki sifat antagonistik yang efektif terhadap cendawan Foc. Efektivitas antagonisme cendawan tersebut tidak berbeda nyata dengan efektivitas antagonisme yang tidak diperlakukan dengan minyak cengkeh. Hasil ini memberikan harapan karena minyak cengkeh tidak memberikan efek negatif terhadap aktivitas Gliocladium sp., sehingga dapat dijadikan sebagai salah satu komponen dalam program pengendalian secara terpadu penyakit layu Fusarium pada pisang. Namun masih diperlukan penelitian lebih lanjut mengenai pengaruh minyak cengkeh terhadap pertumbuhan tanaman.


Clove essential oil and Gliocladium sp.   are known to have the potency for controlling Fusarium oxysporum f.sp cubense (Foc) the causal agent of  wilt banana disease. The compatibility of clove oil and Gliocladium sp. has to be evaluated to establish an integrated pest management against Fusarium disease. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of clove oil on the growth of Gliocladium sp. colony and the inhibition value of this fungus to Foc race 4. The experiment was conducted  in the Plant Protection Laboratory  of Indonesian Tropical Fruit Research Institute  from May to July 2008. The treatments were volumes of clove oil i.e. 3, 9, and 18 µl that were arranged in a completely randomized design with five replications. The results showed that Gliocladium sp. mycelia treated with clove oil could still grow throughout the available space within petridish. However, Gliocladium sp. treated with this oil had lower number of conidia than that it was untreated. Gliocladium sp. treated with clove oil had still effective antagonism trait to Foc. This effectiveness was not significantly different from  Gliocladium sp. that was untreated with clove oil. This result indicated  that clove oil  had good potency as a component in integrated control program against  wilt disease on banana, because it did not have negative effect to Gliocladium sp. However, further research is still needed to evaluate the effect of clove oil to plant growth.  


Keywords


Clove essential oil; Gliocladium sp.; Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense; Antagonism.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v21n1.2011.p33-39

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