Isolasi dan Uji Kemampuan Rizobakteri Indigenous sebagai Agensia Pengendali Hayati Penyakit pada Tanaman Cabai

Sutariati GA K, Abdul Wahab

Abstract


ABSTRAK. Sejumlah cendawan patogen merupakan penyebab berbagai penyakit pada tanaman cabai (Capsicum annuum L.). Oleh karena fungisida sintetik berpengaruh negatif terhadap lingkungan, akhir-akhir ini penggunaan mikroorganisme antagonis sebagai agensia alternatif pengendali berbagai jenis patogen tanaman semakin banyak diteliti dan dikembangkan. Jenis mikroorganisme tersebut ialah bakteri rizosfir nonpatogenik yang mengolonisasi perakaran tanaman, dikenal sebagai plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. Berbagai jenis rizobakteri telah banyak digunakan untuk mengendalikan penyakit, di samping untuk memacu pertumbuhan tanaman. Tujuan penelitian ialah mengisolasi rizobakteri indigenous Sulawesi Tenggara dari perakaran tanaman cabai yang dieksplorasi dari Kabupaten Konawe, Konawe Selatan, Kendari, Muna, dan Buton serta menguji kemampuan isolat tersebut untuk menghambat pertumbuhan koloni cendawan patogen (Colletotrichum capsici dan Fusarium oxysporum) di laboratorium. Dari hasil penelitian diperoleh 20 isolat rizobakteri indigenous potensial (masing-masing 14 isolat P. fluorescens, dua isolat Serratia spp., dan empat isolat Bacillus spp.). Ke-20 isolat tersebut memiliki kemampuan menghambat pertumbuhan koloni patogen target (C. capsici dan F. oxysporum) dan berpotensi dikembangkan sebagai agensia hayati pada tanaman cabai.

ABSTRACT. Sutariati, G.A.K and A. Wahab. 2010. Isolation and Efficacy Trial of Indigenous Rhizobacteria as Biocontrol Agents of Fungal Diseases of Hot Pepper. A number of fungal pathogens have caused various diseases in hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Since the utilization of chemical fungicides has negative impact to the environment, application of naturally available antagonistic microorganisms has been developed to control fungal pathogens. Rhizobacteria have been used for disease control and plant growth enhancement. The objectives of this experiment were to isolate local rhizobacteria from surrounding hot pepper roots, explored from Southeast Sulawesi especially from Konawe, South Konawe, Kendari, Muna, and Buton Regencies, and to characterize the effectiveness of the isolates to inhibit colony growth of hot pepper fungal pathogens, namely Colletotrichum capsici and Fusarium oxysporum. In this experiment, 20 potential isolates of indigenous rhizobacteria were found, i.e 14 isolates of P. fluorescens, two isolates of  Serratia spp., and four isolates of Bacillus spp.. All of the 20 isolates were able to inhibit colony growth of fungal pathogens and potential to be used as biocontrol agents of fungal diseases of hot pepper.

Keywords


Capsicum annuum; Colletotrichum capsici; Fusarium oxysporum; Efek penghambatan; Rizobakteri indigenous; Pengendali biologi.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v20n1.2010.p%25p

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